Sunday, October 10, 2010

Hitler - He alone, who owns the youth, gains the Future!

Looking back into History to Understand the Present
Check out the SnapScouts Program [last article] below. In one way, it is hard to believe, then again, with all
that has happened in the last decade or two, it is almost expected.This is America today!
How is this any different from what happened in Germany and Russia? At first glance, it may look innocent enough but when we look back into history and make a comparison, it is not as innocuous as it first appeared. Children of all ages are being recruited into a vast "army" of spies, scanning the neighbourhood for any wrong doing, taking pictures (paparazzi-style) unknowingly of unsuspecting individuals, and then submitting them to trained professionals to determine if a crime was indeed commited. Does it sound like a wonderful way to keep our neighbourhoods free of crime? I don't think so.
Not only will innocent people become suspected of a crime, but the criminals themselves, maybe a drug dealer, for example, may discover themselves having their photo taken, then the child/youth is in danger of being harmed or killed. Is it worth the risk?
What next? Informing the professionals that their parents don't like Obama's policies? Reporting false information against neighbours that might be disliked for whatever reason?
This is one step forward to a "Big Brother/Orwellian" society where the State comes before family and friends. I never thought I would live to see the day when this would happen and it is happening at such a fast rate that most people refuse to see it, thinking that it's not real, that the paranoid, schizophrenic, conspiracy theorists are running rampant with their imagination whenever the subject is brought up. Not so. Take a gander back into history and ask yourself if it is possible to happen again.
Is it better to be informed or to live in ignorance? You decide for yourself.
Hitler Youth
He alone, who owns the youth, gains the Future! -- Adolf Hitler, speech at the Reichsparteitag, 1935
Figure 1.--The Hitler Youth Movement succeded in mesmerizing an entire generation of idealistic German boys with the NAZI ideology of racial and national superiority. These boys were the ones who carried out without question the barbarities of aggresive war and the Holocaust.
The Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth), the NAZI party's youth movement, indoctrinated German youth to perpetuate the "1,000 year Reich." The Hitler Youth movement emphasized activism, physical training, NAZI ideology, especially nationalism and racial concepts, and absolute obedience to Hitler and the NAZI Party.
Indoctrinating children in National Socialist ideology was a key goal of the NAZI Party. Once Hitler assumed control over the German state, he used the Government to make the Hitler Youth the country's all encompassing youth movement. Hitler and other Nazis leaders saw the indoctrination of young Germans as of critical importance. In the same year that they took power, the Nazis organized German youth organizations into two branches of the Hitler Youth (Hitler Jugend), one branch for boys and one for girls. Membership was eventually made compulsory and all boys had to report to a neighbourhood office to have his racial background checked and be registered for membership. There was then a typically elaborate introduction ceremony on the Führer's birthday. The Hitler Youth was not just a German version of the Boy Scouts. The Hitler Youth were more similar to the Soviet Young Pioneers, but even with the Pioneers there were major differences. Hitler from the beginning saw the Hitler Youth movement as a tool to hardening boys for their future role of soldiers. He wanted a generation of "victorious active, daring youth, immune to pain." There was to be no "intellectual" training for the boys of the New Order, Hitler saw intellectual pursuits as damaging to German youth. The Nazis used the Hitler Jugend to educate German Youth " in the spirit of National Socialism " and subjected them to an intensive programme of Nazi propaganda. The Nazis established the Hitler Jugend as a source of replacements for Nazi Party formations. The Hitler Youth leadership in October, 1938 entered into an agreement with Himmler under which members of the Hitler Jugend who met SS standards would be considered as the primary source of recruitment for the SS. The Nazis also used the Hitler Jugend for pre-military training. Special units were set up whose primary purpose was training specialists for the various military branches. HBC has compiled the following information on the Hitler Youth movement and the uniforms the boys wore.
The Nazis seized power in 1933. Independent youth groups were absorbed into the Hitler Youth or
abolished. The Nazis by 1935 had enrolled 60 percent of Germany's youth into their youth movement. There were programs for both boys and girls, but they were very different given Hitler's concept of the proper role of women. Joining at the age of ten, boys were indoctrinated in all aspects of Nazi ideology, and particularly brainwashed in anti-Semitism. Encouraged to translate ideas into action, many later became active participants in the Nazi’s mass murder of European Jews and other groups they considered undesirable.
NAZI youth organization began in 1922. The task was taken on by the SA. The Hitler Youth were officially formed at the second Reichsparteitag (National Party Day) on July 4, 1926. Shortly after seizing power in 1933, the Nazis broke in to the German Youth Ministry and explained that the workers were now employed by the Hitler Youth. Anti-Nazis were ejected. Most of the existing German Youth organizations were either banned or incorporated into the Hitler Youth. Most boys had to join the Hitler Youth, although membership was not officially compulsory until 1939. In 1942, physical training became more rigorous. Many basic military skills were incorporated such as camouflage, crossing rivers, digging fox holes laying down, etc. Hitler Youth Leader Arthur Axmann on Hitler's birthday (April 1944) presented him with a newly formed division--the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitler jugend. The Division was composed of HJ youth born in 1926, meaning that they were 17-18 years old. The senior NCOs and officers were mostly SS veterans from the Eastern Front. The Division played a prominent role in the Normandy fighting.
The Hitler Youth movement changed over time from one of many competing youth movements to a powerful state-sponsored youth movement. Hitler from the beginning conceived a youth program as essential to the NAZI program. The Hitler Youth program was guided by an early NAZI convert, Baldur von Schirach. The Hitler Youth program had four different phases, the predecessors (1923-26), the early years (1926-32) when they had to compete with other youth groups, the Government years (1933-39) when independent groups were suppressed and young Germans were indoctrinated in preparation for the War. and finally the War years (1940-45) when the Hitler Youth played an important part, including the formation of combat units.
Figure 2.--Nationalist youth groups stressed military drill and as they got older more and more military training was added to the programs, including handling fire arms. We at first thought these were Hitler Youth boys. But the uniform is not right. Note the tassle on the one boys's cap. I'm not sure what that meant. Also note that the other boys are not wearing black shorts. I'm not sure just what uniform they are wearing. The emblem on one boy's cap looks like a Luftwaffe emblem.
The Hitler Youth grew from a group with a handful of boys to one of the most important uniformed youth group in Europe. No group so thoroughly succeeded in their stated purpose. Had the Nazis succeeded, the elite of Europe would have been raised and trained through the Hitler Youth. Membership increased from about 1,000 boys in 1923 to nearly 8 million in 1939 when Hitler launched World War II.
Legal Status
Hitler Youth members seized the German Youth Ministry within a few weeks of Hitler's appointment as Chancellor (1933). Membership for a few years was more or less voluntary. This changed with the promulgation of three laws (1936, 39, and 41) which among other matters made membership compulsory for all German children beginning at age 10 years. The First Hitler Youth Law announced, "The future of the German people depends on its youth. Therefore, all of the German youth must be prepared for its future duties." The subsequent two Hitler Youth Laws were designed primarily to prevent families from evading the requirement to enrol their children in the HJ.
The Nazis within only months of seizing power in 1933, organized, all German youth groups and clubs for boys and girls between the ages of 10-18. Independent groups were consolidated by the Reich into the Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) and organized along military lines. The NAZI youth program began for children at 10 years of age. The Hitler Youth program was for all German youth, boys and girls. The program, however, was not coeducational. There were separate groups for boys and girls. The activities of the two programs were very different. Both stressed health and outdoor activities, but the girl's program stressed the home and family and the duty to bear children. The boy's program stressed building a healthy body and skills that would serve a future German warrior.
Hitler considered the NAZI youth movement to be very important. Politicians are known to give lip service
to children's programs, but their priorities were elsewhere. Hitler was very serious about the Hitler Youth program. It was a very important part of the Third Reich because it was so useful for the regime. There are several reasons Hitler gave considerable attention to youth. Hitler was a politician. He was a very astute politician, but ironically hated the give and take of politics. He was keenly aware of the difficulties he had to overcome to seize power and even in the tainted March 1933 election that he failed to obtain a majority vote. He realized that he would never be able to convert all Germans to National Socialism. He converted many, but many others saw through the official propaganda. The younger generation was a different matter. They came to the Hitler Youth as more of a clean slate which were much more vulnerable to ideological manipulation. He was sceptical about the schools, especially the schools he inherited in 1933. The Hitler Youth was a program that the Nazis could completely control. Not only did the Hitler Youth provide the vehicle which the future generation of Germans could be shaped, but the youth could be used in many other ways by Hitler and the Nazis.
Principles and Ideology
The two major principles the Nazis constantly preached at the Hitler Youth boys was the superiority of the German nation and Aryan race and the need of the German people for Lebensraum ("living space") in the east. There were other principles such as the recovery of territory lost in World War I and of Germany's overseas colonies.
International Activities
The Hitler Youth movement was a German nationalist movement. There was nothing like the Boy Scout effort at internationalism. This would be rather difficult in an organization named after and idealizing the national leader and which proclaimed the German nation and people as the greatest in the world. Nor were the Nazis interested in giving young Germans experiences with foreigners which might dilute the NAZI nationalist mindset. There were, however, for the Nazis some complications. First there was the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan and with junior partners in Eastern Europe. Second, the Nazis saw the world in racial terms. Thus there were several foreign countries with Aryan populations. These were countries or regions which, had Germany won World War II, would have been incorporated into the Reich (Flanders, the Netherlands, and Scandinavia). Here the approach of the Hitler Youth was to provide children in those countries experiences within the Reich, although after the war began to go against Germany this effort had to be curtailed. Third, after the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler presented Germany as leading a great crusade against Bolshevism. Thus there were some propaganda attempts to portray a kind of NAZI led pan-Europeanism.
An important part of the Hitler Youth system was authority given to the members. The Hitler Youth made a point that "youth must be led by youth". This was an important part of the Hitler Youth ethos, meant to cultivate the image of unsullied German youth rejecting the failed old leaders and their failed policies and principles. In fact, boys and girls were given leadership positions. The slogan, however, was misleading.
The boys were encouraged to question or even reject some authority figures, such as parents or church leaders, which appealed to many boys.
 They were required, however, to accept NAZI principles without question. Hitler Youth leaders did not represent an autonomous youth culture, but were in effect functionaries of the NAZI Party bureaucracy. They were tightly regimented by rules and regulations. [Noakes and Pridham, p. 422.]
The Hitler Youth program was based on Hitler's anti-intellectualism. Hitler was a notorious anti-intellectual. The best example of this is Hitler's ban in 1940 on weapons programs which could not be completed within a year. Thus decision by the Führer put back the development of key radar, jet, and rocket systems so that by the time they were finally operational, they had minimal impact on the war. Intellectual pursuits were not encouraged in NAZI Germany. In fact it could be quite dangerous in NAZI Germany to speak one's mind, especially on matters of interest to Hitler and the Nazis. The Hitler Youth program reflected Hitler's distrust of intellectuals and lack of interest in intellectual pursuits. Physical, rather than mental development was stressed and outdoor activities dominated the program--including activities of indirect or direct value to the military.
There were many special programs associated with the Hitler Youth. The basis activities of marching, camping, games, and other activities is described above. In addition there were special programs including labour service, assisting the Getstapo, and helping with various aspects of the war effort.
Figure 3.--The boys in the center wear the Hitler Youth winter uniform. They are being presented Iron Crosses for bravery in 1943. They are being congratulated by youth leader Arthur Axmann who lost his right arm during fighting on the Eastern Front.
One can not help, but wonder what the boys themselves thought about the Hitler Youth and the New Germany. Information from diaries, letters, interviews of adults looking back on their Hitler Youth days, and other sources provide often chilling insights on what the boys in these photographs were thinking. We will also archive here what ever we find about what the boys thought about their uniforms. It was not just Aryan German boys to which the Hitler Youth appealed.
We have not had the opportunity to thoroughly research the uniforms of the Hitler Youth. WE don't have any
written material describing the history of the uniform and actual uniform regulations. We notice some chronological trends in the Hitler Youth uniforms. The early uniforms of the Jugendbund could vary. Once the Nazis seized power and the Hitler Youth became a state youth program, the uniform became much more standardized. The basic uniform of brown shirt and black short pants varied little over time. We have seen some variations, but are unsure if that represents expected variations in any large number of boys, regional variations, or changes in national regulations over time. The uniform was very popular among the Hitler Youth boys. In our modern era of sophisticated, jaded youth who object to the idea of a uniform, it is difficult to fully comprehend just how important the uniform was to boys at the time. This was perhaps especially true in Germany, but Scouts in other countries also felt strongly about their uniforms. There were two sections to the boys units of the Hitler Youth, the Deutsche Jugend for the younger (10-14) boys and the Hitler Jugend proper for the older (15-18) boys. There were differences in the uniforms of the two groups. Some of the uniform items were identical, but there were important differences. The most obvious uniform item was a brown shirt.
The basic banner of the Hitler Youth was black with a single rune. This was a contrast to the SS which used a double rune as its symbol. The HJ single rune flag was commonly carried at the front of the column when HJ units paraded. Often we see the standard bearer flanked by color guards. Notably we do not see the boys carrying the swastika flag, even after 1935 when it became the official national German flag. We note that often the single rune banner was the only banner or flag that the HJ units carried. We do note other banners, but we are not sure just what they represented. Hopefully HBU readers will be able to provide some insights.
Membership Book
Hitler Youth members were issued membership books. The first page of the membership book had the diamond shaped logo of the Hitler Youth and the membership number. The books included identity photographs and basic information such as the youth's birth date and when he or she joined the HJ organization. There was also a page for recording the payment of dues. Here a small stamp was pasted in that indicated that the dues had been paid. The text of the membership card was written in the old-style German script.
The HJ set requirements in exercise, shooting, communications, map reading, first aid, and other areas that the boys were expected to achieve. We do not yet have details on those requirements which presumably were staggered according to the DJ/HJ levels or age. We believe there was some sort of handbook establishing these requirements. We assume that the boys were instructed in the weekly meetings. We also note training exercises at summer camps. We are less sure how the testing was conducted or what happened to boys who did not meet the requirements. One interesting aspect here is that the boys did not have merit badges on their uniforms to show their accomplishments. Nor did they have the achievement-based ranks reflecting their accomplishments like the system in Cub/Boy Scouting.
Hitler Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach stated that, "It was my task to educate the youth in the aims,
ideology and directives of the NSDAP, and beyond this to direct and to shape them." [Nizkor Project, 3302-PS.] The Hitler Youth developed an elaborate propaganda apparatus to accomplish this. They published numerous periodicals, ranging from a daily press service to monthly magazines. Through liaison agents the Hitler Youth Propaganda Office had permanent contact with Dr. Goebbels' Propaganda Office of the NSDAP and with the Ministry of People's Enlightenment and Propaganda. [Nizkor Project, 3349-PS.] The Hitler Youth organization published a series of magazines including Youth and Homeland, The Young World, The German Girl and Girls Your World. Another magazine, Will and Power, was produced for HJ leaders and female guardians.
Portraits and Snapshots
HBU looks on photographs as small historical documents, a moment in time frozen for posterity. Photographs are especially valuable if we know who the individuals are and a little about their family. Unfortunately this is often not the case. Even so, the photographic record does I think provide valuable insights into the Hitler Youth. Here we are especially interested in two aspects of the HJ. First we are interested in how the HJ was perceived with German families. There are quite a number of personal accounts. But because of the associations involved with the Nazis, it is not always possible to take personal accounts at face value. Family attitudes are especially interesting because part of the purpose of the HJ was to break down family allegiances and cement loyalty to the Party and Führer. Second we are interested in the camaraderie fostered by the HJ, a powerful force for youth, especially teenagers. Readers may have other ideas and insights that can be garnered from the available photographic record.
Critical Charges
The Hitler Youth movement continues to be of interest to historians studying the 20th century. The Nazis and their sympathizers after World War II claimed that charges concerning the evil nature of the Hitler Youth were unfounded, that they were nothing more than a youth movement comparable to the Boy Scouts. Hitler Youth organizer Baldur von Schirach used this argument at his Nuremburg trial, although he did admit the organization had been misused during the War, when he was no longer the leader. HBU has noted numerous accounts about the Hitler Youth both before and after the War. Some relate to actual HJ programs, other to the individual actions of HJ members which may or may not have been instigated or tolerated by HJ leaders. Some of these charges are widely know and well documented. Others are based on individual observations and thus less open to confirmation.
Personal Accounts
Interesting details about the Hitler Youth are available from the children involved looking back as adults on their experiences. The reflections are quite varied. Most boys were at first eager to join. Parents had more mixed feelings, especially anti-Nazis. In many cases the boys from these families could not understand their parents misgivings. Often it was not safe for their parents to explain why to their children--both boys and girls. Many boys enthusiastically participated. Other boys hated it, especially smaller boys and boys who did not have an athletic bent who might have difficulty. And of course some boys were excluded such as Jewish boys or part Jewish boys (Mischling). We hope to archive a variety of accounts here. We would be very interested in hearing from our older German readers about their experiences. We are also interested in any personal accounts which may have been published. Millions of boys were involved. We think many have been hesitant to write about their experiences which is unfortunate. A few parents managed to keep their children out of the Hitler Youth or the children could not participate because they were not Aryan. In many cases these boys envied the Hitler Youth boys with their fine uniforms and comradeship.
Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union
From Wikipedia
Emblem of the Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union
The Young Pioneer Organization of the Soviet Union, also Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization was a mass youth organization of the USSR for children of age 10–15 in the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.
After the October Revolution of 1917, some Scouts took the Bolsheviks' side, which would later lead to the establishment of ideologically altered Scoutlike organizations, such as ЮК (Юные Коммунисты, or young communists; pronounced as yook) and others.
(left) 50 years, Stamp, 1972
During the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1921, most of the Scoutmasters and many Scouts fought in the ranks of the White Army and interventionists against the Red Army.
Those Scouts who did not wish to accept the new Soviet system either left Russia for good (like Oleg Pantyukhov and others) or went underground.
However, clandestine Scouting did not last long. Komsomol persistently fought with the remnants of the Scout movement. Between 1918 and 1920, the second, third, and fourth All-Russian Congresses of the Russian Union of the Communist Youth (Российский коммунистический союз молодёжи, or Rossiyski kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi) decided to eradicate the Scout movement and create an organization of the communist type, that would take Soviet youth under its umbrella.
On behalf of the soviet government Nadezhda Krupskaya (Vladimir Lenin's wife) was one of the main contributors to the cause of the Pioneer movement. In 1922, she wrote an essay called Russian Union of the Communist Youth and boy-Scoutism. However, it was the remaining scoutmasters themselves, like Innokentiy Zhukov and some others around Nikolaj Fatyanov's "Brothers of the fire", who introduced the name "pioneer" and convinced the Komsomol to keep the scout's motto "Be prepared! – Always prepared!"
Just some days before the Komsomol conference the Moscow scoutmasters adopted a "Declaration of the scoutmasters of Moscow concerning the question of the formation of a children's movement in the RSFSR" on May 13, 1922. Thereby they suggested to use the system scouting as a foundation of the new communist organisation, and to name it "Young pioneers".
(left) Young Pioneers' Palace (perhaps not as well decorated as the one in Sormovo) could be found in most Soviet cities
The main contribution of the scoutmasters was the introduction of the new expression system scouting into the discourse on communist children's and youth organisations. By doing so they avoided the dissolution of the scout organisation as it would happen sooner or later to any organisation opposed to the Komsomol.
On May 19, 1922 the second All-Russian Komsomol Conference adopted the scoutmasters' suggestions and decided to "work on the question of a children's movement by using the re-organized system of scouting." During the following years many of the remaining former scoutmasters founded pioneer groups and educated future pioneer leaders.
May 19, 1922 was later on considered the birthday of the All-Union Pioneer Organization (Всесоюзная пионерская организация, or Vsesoyuznaya pionerskaya organizatsiya). By October 1922 pioneer units were united to form an organization Spartak Young Pioneers (Russian: Юные пионеры имени Спартака), which was named after V. I. Lenin by a decision of the Central Committee of Komsomol of January 21, 1924. Since March 1926 it bore the name Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization.
By the middle of 1923 it had 75,000 members. Among other activities, Young Pioneer units, helped by Komsomol, played a great role in the eradication of illiteracy (Likbez policy) since 1923. Membership was at 161,000 in the beginning of 1924, 2 million in 1926, 13.9 million in 1940, and 25 million in 1974. Many Young Pioneer Palaces were built, which served as community centers for the children, with rooms dedicated to various clubs, such as crafts or sports. Thousands of Young Pioneer camps were set up where children went during summer vacation and winter holidays. All of them were free of charge, sponsored by the government and Trade Unions.
Soviet Young Pioneers in 1983 in the Zeravshan Mountains of the Tajik SSR.
Its main grouping of members until 1942 was the "Young Pioneer detachment," which then typically consisted of children belonging to the same secondary school. From 1942 to October 1990 (when the organization was broken up) the "detachment" was made up of children belonging to the same class within a school, while a school was referred to as a "Young Pioneer group."
There was also an age-scale structure: children of 10–11 years were called Young Pioneers of the first stage; 11–12 years were Young Pioneers of the second stage; 13–15 years were Young Pioneers of the third stage. Young Pioneers of 15 years could join Komsomol, with a recommendation from their Young Pioneer group.
The main governing body was the Central Soviet of the Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union, which worked under leadership of the main governing body of Komsomol. Its official newspaper was Pionerskaya Pravda.
Main goals and requirements of membership
The main goals and duties of Young Pioneers and requirements of membership were specified by the Regulations of the Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet Union; by the Solemn Promise (given by each Young Pioneer joining the organization); by the Rules of the Young Pioneers; and by the Young Pioneer Motto, всегда готов! (vsegda gotov!, "Always Ready!"). There were two major revisions of them: in 1967 and 1986.
Although membership was theoretically optional, almost all the children in the Soviet Union belonged to the organization; it was a natural part of growing up.
Symbols, attributes, rituals and traditions
The main symbols of Young Pioneers were the red banner, flag, Young Pioneer's red tie, the badge. Attributes: the bugle, the drum, the uniform (with badges of rank). Some of rituals were: salute, Young Pioneer parade, banner bearing, raising of the flag. Most common traditions were the Young Pioneers rally (usually round a bonfire) and festivals.
Young Pioneer songs were usually sung at various Young Pioneer meetings, in Young Pioneer camps, and at schools. One of the earliest and the most popular song was the Young Pioneer March. It was written in 1922 by Aleksandr Zharov (music by Sergei Dyoshkin) and was sometimes called The Anthem of Young Pioneers. There were a great many other songs, here are some very popular ones:
Accepting you into Young Pioneers (music by Aleksandra Pakhmutova, lyrics by N.Dobronravov)
Song about the first Young Pioneer detachment (A.Dolukhanian, S.Runge)
Our land (Dmitry Kabalevsky, A.Prishelets)
Gaidar is marching first (Aleksandra Pakhmutova, N.Dobronravov)
The eaglet (V.Bely, Ya. Shvedov)
The little joyful drummer (L. Schwarz, Bulat Okudzhava)
March of Young Pioneer groups (N.Gubar'kov, G. Khodosov)
May there always be sunshine (A.Ostrovsky, L.Oshanin)
The Young Pioneers who excelled in academic study, work, sports or social activity were elected to the self-governing institutions, were sent as delegates to the Young Pioneers gatherings (including All-Union ones). The most notable were recognized in the organization's Book of Honor. During World War II, many Young Pioneers fought against Nazis in partisan detachments, which existed near their homes on the territories occupied by Nazi Germany. Nearly 30,000 of them were awarded various orders and medals; 4 Young Pioneers became Heroes of the Soviet Union. One of the famous young pioneer All-Union camps was "Artek" located in Crimea, Ukraine. The camp was located on the top of the mountain "A-yu-dahg" which means "Bear's Mountain". Only the best students were selected to go there based on their grades and leadership. Young communists from other countries were welcome as well.
The "Young Pioneers of Communism" are a prepubescent organization for what the Party deems to be the "revolutionary successors to the Communist enterprise." In the past, only children with the correct class background were eligible to join this elite group, one renamed the "Little Red Guards" during the Cultural Revolution. In these days of political laxity, most children are inducted into the ranks of the Young Pioneers, wear the red scarves that indicate membership and participate in its activities which are a mixture of the Scouts and the former-Soviet Komsomol.
After the Beijing Massacre, thousands of Young Pioneers were organized in Tiananmen as a gesture that China's revolutionary young had symbolically taken back the Square from the student demonstrators of 1989. Among other things the youngsters chanted their central credo, called simply "the three loves," that is, "to love the Motherland, love the Party and love the Communist Party."

Here is the Present:

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