*******Bosnia: Exposing Media Disinformation and Anti-Serb Propaganda
The US military-industrial establishment in the beginning armed covertly the military formations of the Muslim president of multiconfessional B&H Alija Izetbegovic. He declared in his February 1991 speech in the Parliament that "For independent B&H I would sacrifice peace, but for that peace in B&H I would not sacrifice its sovereignty", (Kovacevic}, Slobodanka, Dajic, Putnik, 1994: 33).
This was contrary to the will of one constitutive people expressed in the referendum to remain within Yugoslavia.
With the support of US authorities, Alija Izetbegovic vetoed the Jose Cutillero Plan of 1992 and the Vance-Owen Plan of 1993, as Owen describes in his memoirs. Such policy had as an effect civil war and ethnic cleansing. This is exactly what Western leaders proclaimed they wanted to stop by bombing regions inhabited mainly by Serbs, after extremist Muslims staged a massacre at the Marcala marketplace and blamed it on Serbs.
The fact that UN investigators could not confirm this accusation, stressing that the mortar shell could not have come from Serb positions was supressed at the time. In this way Izetbegovic succeeded to realise his strategic political objective outlined already in 1992: "To get the West to defeat the Serbs and establish a Muslim dominated state for him" (Bodansky, Yossef, 1995).
A Look at Kosovo and Albania!
31 January 2011
Karadzic: Srebrenica massacre, Sarajevo siege in Bosnia are 'myths' based on phoney evidence
Arthur Max, The Associated Press
Mar 02, 2010
THE HAGUE, Netherlands - Major events in Bosnia's war - the 44-month Serb siege of Sarajevo and the massacre of 8,000 Muslims at Srebrenica - are "myths" that were staged or fabricated to vilify Serbs, Radovan Karadzic declared Tuesday at his Yugoslav war crimes trial.
Speaking on the second day of his defence, the wartime Bosnian Serb leader said the genocide indictment against him was riddled with false evidence. He also denied Serb culpability in the 1992-1995 war that killed 100,000 people.
Prosecutors say Karadzic was the "supreme commander" of a campaign to kill or expel Muslims and Croats from eastern Bosnia and create an ethnically pure Serbian state. He is charged with two counts of genocide and nine other counts of murder, extermination, persecution, forced deportation and the seizing of 200 U.N. hostages.
He faces possible life imprisonment if convicted.
During seven hours stretched over two days, Karadzic gave a uniquely Serb view of events. His account stood in glaring contrast to news reports and television footage at the time and also contradicted the verdicts against Bosnian Serb political leaders and military commanders who are already serving long sentences for war crimes.
Karadzic boasted that by the end of his trial he would prove those men innocent.
"I am not afraid of these proceedings. It is with great enthusiasm that I am preparing for these proceedings," he said.
He said the judges should give back his indictment to the prosecutors so they could "sweep out false evidence," and called for authorities to "rehabilitate international courts and trials of this nature."
Karadzic won a minor victory from the court, which granted him permission to appeal its earlier refusal to delay his trial until mid-June. The judges cancelled the scheduled appearance Wednesday of the first prosecution witness and adjourned the case until the appellate court rules on his complaint that he had not been given enough time to prepare his defence. Karadzic is representing himself.
On Tuesday, he spoke at length about the siege of Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia that hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics. But he spent surprisingly little time talking about the most serious charge against him, the 1995 slaughter of Muslim men and boys in the U.N.-declared safe zone of Srebrenica.
Karadzic challenged the figure of 8,000 dead in Srebrenica, saying no more than 2,000 or 3,000 could have been killed. He showed a photograph of a stone shrine at Srebrenica engraved with the figure of 8,372 victims, but claimed Muslim corpses had been brought from as far away as 60 miles (100 kilometres) or more to fabricate the figures.
"What they created there is a place of worship. It's a myth again," he told the court. "We know graves are being exhumed in Bosnia so that somebody could be buried in Srebrenica."
He said DNA investigations should be conducted on the victims. "It has to be established who got killed, how, in which way, and where," he said.
The U.N. court already has ruled that genocide occurred in Srebrenica, meaning that the slaughter was conducted with the intent to destroy the Muslim community in that area. But the court has a high bar for proving genocide, and only one general, Radislav Krstic, has been convicted of aiding and abetting genocide for the weeklong bloodletting at Srebrenica.
Discussing the days prior to the war, Karadzic depicted Bosnia's Serbs as victims of "state-sponsored terrorism" by Muslim authorities who rushed toward independence from Yugoslavia and who sought to draw international forces into the conflict.
Referring frequently to maps and speeches flashed onto the courtroom's computer screens, Karadzic spoke of an inexorable breakdown of trust between Bosnian Muslim and Serb leaders, the division of the country into ethnic entities and the march toward war.
He cited provocative attacks on Serbs in early 1992: The shooting of a wedding party and the bombing of a church.
"The shocks didn't come every day - they came every hour," he said, adding that Serb leaders tried to "protect the Serb people from their own state, from their own police, from the state-sponsored terror of their own country."
The start of the Bosnian war is generally marked by the beginning of the bombardment of Sarajevo on April 5, 1992, from the surrounding hillsides.
Karadzic asserted that Sarajevo was "not a city under siege" but instead "a divided city, like Beirut." Serb forces also were surrounded, both inside and outside the city, he said.
He rose twice from his chair to walk over to a large map of Sarajevo.
"This is my city. I spent 50 years of my life living in it," he said, pointing to military front lines that ran through the neighbourhoods he knew so well.
He accused Muslim and Croat forces of "the abuse of hospitals, schools, kindergartens turned into military facilities." On his computerized map he pointed to sniper positions, rooftop bunkers and firing points from the museum in Sarajevo.
When Serb troops responded to fire from Muslims "we were accused of firing indiscriminately at Sarajevo," he claimed.
Karadzic's case will be one of the last dealt with by the Yugoslav tribunal, which has been ordered to wind up its work. Created in 1993, it has indicted 161 people, and 40 cases are still incomplete.
Karadzic's top general, Ratko Mladic, and the wartime leader of the Croatian Serbs, Goran Hadzic, are still fugitives.*******
Karadzic: Sarajevo and Srebrenica crimes are myths
Ex-Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has dismissed as myths the alleged two worst atrocities of the 1992-95 Bosnian war and denied his involvement
2 March 2010
Ex-Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has dismissed as myths the alleged two worst atrocities of the 1992-95 Bosnian war and denied his involvement.
Mr Karadzic told his trial at The Hague that Sarajevo, where some 12,000 people died in 44 months, was "not a city under siege" by Bosnian Serb forces.
He said claims of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre of more than 7,000 Muslim men and boys were based on "false myths".
He is accused of genocide and war crimes committed during the conflict.
The 64-year-old insists he is innocent of all 11 charges.
On Tuesday, the trial was adjourned, pending a decision on Mr Karadzic's appeal for it to be delayed until June on the grounds that he needed more time to prepare to defend himself.
Last week, the trial chamber rejected his first request and had planned to start hearing prosecution witnesses on Wednesday.
On Monday, during the first day of trial, Mr Karadzic described the conflict as "just and holy", blaming Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) for starting it.
On the second day of his opening statement at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), Mr Karadzic said that Sarajevo was "not a city under siege, it was a city divided".He said that Bosnian Serb gunfire and shelling of Bosnia's capital was restricted to legitimate targets.
The ChargesEleven counts of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and other atrocities Charged over shelling of Sarajevo during the city's siege, in which some 12,000 civilians died Allegedly organised the massacre of up to 8,000 Bosniak men and youths in Srebrenica Targeted Bosniak and Croat political leaders, intellectuals and professionals Unlawfully deported and transferred civilians because of national or religious identity Destroyed homes, businesses and sacred sites
And he accused Bosniaks and Croats of turning the city's kindergartens, schools and hospitals into military facilities by setting up command posts and sniper positions there.
"We can prove that they [Bosnian Serb enemies] did shell their own people and killed all their own people," Mr Karadzic said.
He said Bosniaks and Croats had used terror attacks in Sarajevo in an attempt to bring Nato and Western countries and troops on their side.
The 44-month siege of Sarajevo ended in November 1995.
Referring to Srebrenica, Mr Karadzic said claims that Bosnian Serb troops committed a massacre there in July 1995 were based on "false myths and false victims".
He added: "It is going to be easy from me to prove that I had nothing to do with it."
Earlier on Tuesday, Mr Karadzic said he had been seeking to defend Bosnian Serbs from "state-sponsored terrorism" and had tried to prevent the war.
Reaction from some of the survivors of the Srebrenica massacre, who were in The Hague to attend proceedings, was indignant.
"He should be given the Nobel Prize for lying," Sabra Kolenovic of the Mothers of Srebrenica was quoted as saying by Reuters.
Correspondents say Mr Karadzic is trying to show that there was no joint criminal enterprise to carry out the genocide or "ethnic cleansing", but that Serbs were only defending themselves from perceived Muslim aggression.
Mr Karadzic faces two charges of genocide, as well as nine other counts including murder, extermination, persecution and forced deportation.
Left: More than 100,000 people were killed during the 1992-95 Bosnian war
Prosecutors say he orchestrated a campaign of "ethnic cleansing" against Muslims and Croats in eastern Bosnia to create an ethnically pure Serbian state.
In his opening statement last October, prosecutor Alan Tieger said Mr Karadzic had "harnessed the forces of nationalism, hatred and fear to pursue his vision of an ethnically segregated Bosnia".
Mr Karadzic had boycotted earlier proceedings, insisting on more time to prepare his case.
In November, the court appointed British lawyer Richard Harvey to take over the defence if he continued his boycott.
Mr Karadzic was arrested in Belgrade in 2008 after nearly 13 years on the run.
During his time in power, he was president of the self-styled Bosnian Serb Republic and commander of its army during the Bosnian conflict which left more than 100,000 people dead.
He is the most significant figure to face justice at this tribunal since the former Yugoslav President, Slobodan Milosevic, who died of a heart attack in 2006 before his own trial was concluded.*******
Profile: Ratko Mladic
Ratko Mladic was Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic's army chief throughout the Bosnian war
Along with Mr Karadzic, he came to symbolise the Serb campaign of ethnic cleansing of Croats and Muslims and is one of the most wanted suspects from the Bosnia conflict.
He has been indicted by the UN war crimes tribunal on charges of genocide and other crimes against humanity - including the massacre of at least 7,500 Muslim men and boys from the town of Srebrenica in 1995.
Having lived freely in Belgrade for some time, Mr Mladic disappeared from view when former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic was arrested in 2001.
Starting in October 2004, former aides to Mr Mladic began surrendering to the war crimes tribunal, as Belgrade came under intense international pressure to co-operate.
They included Radivoje Miletic and Milan Gvero, both accused of involvement in ethnic cleansing.
Speculation mounted that Mr Mladic would soon be arrested when Radovan Karadzic was arrested in Belgrade in July 2008.
Overall commander Ratko Mladic was born in Bosnia, in the village of Kalinovik, in 1942.
He was brought up in Tito's Yugoslavia, becoming a regular officer in the Yugoslav People's Army.
Genocide Complicity in genocide Crimes against humanity Violations of laws or customs of war
As the country began to disintegrate in 1991, he was posted to lead the Yugoslav army's 9th Corps against Croatian forces at Knin.
Later, he took command of the Yugoslav Army's Second Military District, based in Sarajevo.
Then, in May 1992, the Bosnian Serb Assembly voted to create a Bosnian Serb army, appointing Gen Mladic commander.
He is considered to have been one of the prime movers in the siege of Sarajevo and in 1995 led the Serb onslaught against the UN-protected enclave of Srebrenica, the worst atrocity in Europe since World War II.
Bosnian Serb forces laid siege to the Srebrenica enclave, where tens of thousands of civilians had taken refuge from earlier Serb offensives in north-eastern Bosnia.
The Serb forces bombarded Srebrenica with heavy shelling and rocket fire for five days before Mr Mladic entered the town accompanied by Serb camera crews.
The next day, buses arrived to take the women and children sheltering in Srebrenica to Muslim territory, while the Serbs separated out all Muslim men and boys from age 12 to 77 for "interrogation for suspected war crimes".
In the five days after Bosnian Serb forces overran Srebrenica, at least 7,500 Muslim men and boys were murdered.
After the end of the Bosnian war, Mr Mladic returned to Belgrade, enjoying the open support and protection of Mr Milosevic.
He lived openly in the city - visiting public places, eating in expensive restaurants and even attending football matches until Mr Milosevic's arrest.
Some reports say he took refuge in his wartime bunker in Han Pijesak, not far from Sarajevo, or in Montenegro.
Other reports say he remained in or near Belgrade. Former UN war crimes tribunal's chief prosecutor Carla Del Ponte claimed both he and Mr Karadzic were in the city in February 2004.
He is reported to have been suffering from bad health.
In April 2005, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Draskovic said Serbian security agents knew Mr Mladic's whereabouts. The head of the intelligence agency described the allegations as "ridiculous".*******
A Look at Kosovo and Albania!
31 January 2011