Wednesday, November 30, 2011

The Clash of Civilizations is Progressing!

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Preparing the Chessboard for the "Clash of Civilizations": Divide, Conquer and Rule the "New Middle East"
By Mahdi Darius Nazemroaya
URL of this article: www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=27786
Global Research, November 26, 2011
The name "Arab Spring" is a catch phrase concocted in distant offices in Washington, London, Paris, and Brussels by individuals and groups who, other than having some superficial knowledge of the region, know very little about the Arabs. What is unfolding amongst the Arab peoples is naturally a mixed package. Insurgency is part of this package as is opportunism. Where there is revolution, there is always counter-revolution.
The upheavals in the Arab World are not an Arab "awakening" either; such a term implies that the Arabs have always been sleeping while dictatorship and injustice has been surrounding them. In reality the Arab World, which is part of the broader Turko-Arabo-Iranic World, has been filled with frequent revolts that have been put down by the Arab dictators in coordination with countries like the United States, Britain, and France. It has been the interference of these powers that has always acted as a counter-balance to democracy and it will continue to do so.
Divide and Conquer: How the First "Arab Spring" was Manipulated
The plans for reconfiguring the Middle East started several years before the First World War. It was during the First World War, however, that the manifestation of these colonial designs could visibly be seen with the "Great Arab Revolt" against the Ottoman Empire.
Despite the fact that the British, French, and Italians were colonial powers which had prevented the Arabs from enjoying any freedom in countries like Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Sudan, these colonial powers managed to portray themselves as the friends and allies of Arab liberation.
During the "Great Arab Revolt" the British and the French actually used the Arabs as foot soldiers against the Ottomans to further their own geo-political schemes. The secret Sykes–Picot Agreement between London and Paris is a case in point. France and Britain merely managed to use and manipulate the Arabs by selling them the idea of Arab liberation from the so-called "repression" of the Ottomans.
In reality, the Ottoman Empire was a multi-ethnic empire. It gave local and cultural autonomy to all its peoples, but was manipulated into the direction of becoming a Turkish entity. Even the Armenian Genocide that would ensue in Ottoman Anatolia has to be analyzed in the same context as the contemporary targeting of Christians in Iraq as part of a sectarian scheme unleashed by external actors to divide the Ottoman Empire, Anatolia, and the citizens of the Ottoman Empire.
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, it was London and Paris which denied freedom to the Arabs, while sowing the seeds of discord amongst the Arab peoples. Local corrupt Arab leaders were also partners in the project and many of them were all too happy to become clients of Britain and France. In the same sense, the "Arab Spring" is being manipulated today. The U.S., Britain, France, and others are now working with the help of corrupt Arab leaders and figures to restructure the Arab World and Africa.
The Yinon Plan: Order from Chaos...
The Yinon Plan, which is a continuation of British stratagem in the Middle East, is an Israeli strategic plan to ensure Israeli regional superiority. It insists and stipulates that Israel must reconfigure its geo-political environment through the balkanization of the surrounding Arab states into smaller and weaker states.
Israeli strategists viewed Iraq as their biggest strategic challenge from an Arab state. This is why Iraq was outlined as the centerpiece to the balkanization of the Middle East and the Arab World. In Iraq, on the basis of the concepts of the Yinon Plan, Israeli strategists have called for the division of Iraq into a Kurdish state and two Arab states, one for Shiite Muslims and the other for Sunni Muslims. The first step towards establishing this was a war between Iraq and Iran, which the Yinon Plan discusses.
The Atlantic, in 2008, and the U.S. military's Armed Forces Journal, in 2006, both published widely circulated maps that closely followed the outline of the Yinon Plan. Aside from a divided Iraq, which the Biden Plan also calls for, the Yinon Plan calls for a divided Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria. The partitioning of Iran, Turkey, Somalia, and Pakistan also all fall into line with these views. The Yinon Plan also calls for dissolution in North Africa and forecasts it as starting from Egypt and then spilling over into Sudan, Libya, and the rest of the region.
Securing the Realm: Redefining the Arab World...
Although tweaked, the Yinon Plan is in motion and coming to life under the "Clean Break." This is through a policy document written in 1996 by Richard Perle and the Study Group on "A New Israeli Strategy Toward 2000" for Benjamin Netanyahu, the prime minister of Israel at the time. Perle was a former Pentagon under-secretary for Roland Reagan at the time and later a U.S. military advisor to George W. Bush Jr. and the White House. Aside from Perle, the rest of the members of the Study Group on "A New Israeli Strategy Toward 2000" consisted of James Colbert (Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs), Charles Fairbanks Jr. (Johns Hopkins University), Douglas Feith (Feith and Zell Associates), Robert Loewenberg (Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies), Jonathan Torop (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy), David Wurmser (Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies), and Meyrav Wurmser (Johns Hopkins University). A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm is the full name of this 1996 Israel policy paper.
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In many regards, the U.S. is executing the objectives outlined in Tel Aviv’s 1996 policy paper to secure the "realm." Moreover, the term "realm" implies the strategic mentality of the authors. A realm refers to either the territory ruled by a monarch or the territories that fall under a monarch’s reign, but are not physically under their control and have vassals running them. In this context, the word realm is being used to denote the Middle East as the kingdom of Tel Aviv. The fact that Perle, someone who has essentially been a career Pentagon official, helped author the Israeli paper also makes one ask if the conceptualized sovereign of the realm is either Israel, the United States, or both?
Securing the Realm: The Israeli Blueprints to Destabilize Damascus
The 1996 Israeli document calls for "rolling back Syria" sometime around the year 2000 or afterward by pushing the Syrians out of Lebanon and destabilizing the Syrian Arab Republic with the help of Jordan and Turkey. This has respectively taken place in 2005 and 2011. The 1996 document states: "Israel can shape its strategic environment, in cooperation with Turkey and Jordan, by weakening, containing, and even rolling back Syria. This effort can focus on removing Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq — an important Israeli strategic objective in its own right — as a means of foiling Syria’s regional ambitions." [1]
As a first step towards creating an Israeli-dominated "New Middle East" and encircling Syria, the 1996 document calls for removing President Saddam Hussein from power in Baghdad and even alludes to the balkanization of Iraq and forging a strategic regional alliance against Damascus that includes a Sunni Muslim "Central Iraq." The authors write: "But Syria enters this conflict with potential weaknesses: Damascus is too preoccupied with dealing with the threatened new regional equation to permit distractions of the Lebanese flank. And Damascus fears that the 'natural axis' with Israel on one side, central Iraq and Turkey on the other, and Jordan, in the center would squeeze and detach Syria from the Saudi Peninsula. For Syria, this could be the prelude to a redrawing of the map of the Middle East which would threaten Syria's territorial integrity." [2]
Perle and the Study Group on "A New Israeli Strategy Toward 2000" also call for driving the Syrians out of Lebanon and destabilizing Syria by using Lebanese opposition figures. The document states: "[Israel must divert] Syria’s attention by using Lebanese opposition elements to destabilize Syrian control of Lebanon." [3] This is what would happen in 2005 after the Hariri Assassination that helped launch the so-called "Cedar Revolution" and create the vehemently anti-Syrian March 14 Alliance controlled by the corrupt Said Hariri.
The document also calls for Tel Aviv to "take [the] opportunity to remind the world of the nature of the Syrian regime." [4] This clearly falls into the Israeli strategy of demonizing its opponents through using public relations (PR) campaigns. In 2009, Israeli news media openly admitted that Tel Aviv through its embassies and diplomatic missions had launched a global campaign to discredit the Iranian presidential elections before they even took place through a media campaign and organizing protests in front of Iranian embassies. [5]
The document also mentions something that resembles what is currently going on in Syria. It states: "Most important, it is understandable that Israel has an interest supporting diplomatically, militarily and operationally Turkey’s and Jordan’s actions against Syria, such as securing tribal alliances with Arab tribes that cross into Syrian territory and are hostile to the Syrian ruling elite." [6] With the 2011 upheaval in Syria, the movement of insurgents and the smuggling of weapons through the Jordanian and Turkish borders has become a major problem for Damascus.
In this context, it is no surprise that Arial Sharon and Israel told Washington to attack Syria, Libya, and Iran after the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq. [7] Finally, it is worth knowing that the Israeli document also advocated for pre-emptive war to shape Israel's geo-strategic environment and to carve out the "New Middle East." [8] This is a policy that the U.S. would also adopt in 2001.
The Eradication of the Christian Communities of the Middle East
It is no coincidence that Egyptian Christians were attacked at the same time as the South Sudan Referendum and before the crisis in Libya. Nor is it a coincidence that Iraqi Christians, one of the world's oldest Christian communities, have been forced into exile, leaving their ancestral homelands in Iraq. Coinciding with the exodus of Iraqi Christians, which occurred under the watchful eyes of U.S. and British military forces, the neighbourhoods in Baghdad became sectarian as Shiite Muslims and Sunni Muslims were forced by violence and death squads to form sectarian enclaves. This is all tied to the Yinon Plan and the reconfiguration of the region as part of a broader objective.
In Iran, the Israelis have been trying in vain to get the Iranian Jewish community to leave. Iran's Jewish population is actually the second largest in the Middle East and arguably the oldest undisturbed Jewish community in the world. Iranian Jews view themselves as Iranians who are tied to Iran as their homeland, just like Muslim and Christian Iranians, and for them the concept that they need to relocate to Israel because they are Jewish is ridiculous.
In Lebanon, Israel has been working to exacerbate sectarian tensions between the various Christian and Muslim factions as well as the Druze. Lebanon is a springboard into Syria and the division of Lebanon into several states is also seen as a means for balkanizing Syria into several smaller sectarian Arab states. The objectives of the Yinon Plan are to divide Lebanon and Syria into several states on the basis of religious and sectarian identities for Sunni Muslims, Shiite Muslims, Christians, and the Druze. There could also be objectives for a Christian exodus in Syria too.
The new head of the Maronite Catholic Syriac Church of Antioch, the largest of the autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches, has expressed his fears about a purging of Arab Christians in the Levant and Middle East. Patriarch Mar Beshara Boutros Al-Rahi and many other Christian leaders in Lebanon and Syria are afraid of a Muslim Brotherhood takeover in Syria. Like Iraq, mysterious groups are now attacking the Christian communities in Syria. The leaders of the Christian Eastern Orthodox Church, including the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, have also all publicly expressed their grave concerns. Aside from the Christian Arabs, these fears are also shared by the Assyrian and Armenian communities, which are mostly Christian.
Sheikh Al-Rahi was recently in Paris where he met President Nicolas Sarkozy. It is reported that the Maronite Patriarch and Sarkozy had disagreements about Syria, which prompted Sarkozy to say that the Syrian regime will collapse. Patriarch Al-Rahi's position was that Syria should be left alone and allowed to reform. The Maronite Patriarch also told Sarkozy that Israel needed to be dealt with as a threat if France legitimately wanted Hezbollah to disarm.
Because of his position in France, Al-Rahi was instantly thanked by the Christian and Muslim religious leaders of the Syrian Arab Republic who visited him in Lebanon. Hezbollah and its political allies in Lebanon, which includes most the Christian parliamentarians in the Lebanese Parliament, also lauded the Maronite Patriarch who later went on a tour to South Lebanon.
Sheikh Al-Rahi is now being politically attacked by the Hariri-led March 14 Alliance, because of his stance on Hezbollah and his refusal to support the toppling of the Syrian regime. A conference of Christian figures is actually being planned by Hariri to oppose Patriarch Al-Rahi and the stance of the Maronite Church. Since Al-Rahi announced his position, the Tahrir Party, which is active in both Lebanon and Syria, has also started targeting him with criticism. It has also been reported that high-ranking U.S. officials have also cancelled their meetings with the Maronite Patriarch as a sign of their displeasure about his positions on Hezbollah and Syria.
The Hariri-led March 14 Alliance in Lebanon, which has always been a popular minority (even when it was a parliamentary majority), has been working hand-in-hand with the U.S., Israel, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and the groups using violence and terrorism in Syria. The Muslim Brotherhood and other so-called Salafist groups from Syria have been coordinating and holding secret talks with Hariri and the Christian political parties in the March 14 Alliance. This is why Hariri and his allies have turned on Cardinal Al-Rahi. It was also Hariri and the March 14 Alliance that brought Fatah Al-Islam into Lebanon and have now helped some of its members escape to go and fight in Syria.
There are unknown snippers who are targeting Syrian civilians and the Syrian Army with a view of causing chaos and internal fighting. The Christian communities in Syria are also being targeted by unknown groups. It is very likely that the attackers are a coalition of U.S., French, Jordanian, Israeli, Turkish, Saudi, and Khalij (Gulf) Arab forces working with some Syrians on the inside.
A Christian exodus is being planned for the Middle East by Washington, Tel Aviv, and Brussels. It has been reported that Sheikh Al-Rahi was told in Paris by President Nicolas Sarkozy that the Christian communities of the Levant and Middle East can resettle in the European Union. This is no gracious offer. It is a slap in the face by the same powers that have deliberately created the conditions to eradicate the ancient Christian communities of the Middle East. The aim appears to be either the resettling of the Christian communities outside of the region or demarcate them into enclaves. Both could be objectives.
This project is meant to delineate the Arab nations along the lines of being exclusively Muslim nations and falls into accordance with both the Yinon Plan and the geo-political objectives of the U.S. to control Eurasia. A major war may be its outcome. Arab Christians now have a lot in common with black-skinned Arabs.
Re-Dividing Africa: The Yinon Plan is very Much Alive and at Work...
In regards to Africa, Tel Aviv sees securing Africa as part of its broader periphery. This broader or so-called “new periphery” became a basis of geo-strategy for Tel Aviv after 1979 when the “old periphery” against the Arabs that included Iran, which was one of Israel’s closest allies during the Pahlavi period, buckled and collapsed with the 1979 Iranian Revolution. In this context, Israel’s “new periphery” was conceptualized with the inclusion of countries like Ethiopia, Uganda, and Kenya against the Arab states and the Islamic Republic of Iran. This is why Israel has been so deeply involved in the balkanization of Sudan.
In the same context as the sectarian divisions in the Middle East, the Israelis have outlined plans to reconfigure Africa. The Yinon Plan seeks to delineate Africa on the basis of three facets: (1) ethno-linguistics; (2) skin-colour; and, finally, (3) religion. To secure the realm, it also so happens that the the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies (IASPS), the Israeli think-tank that included Perle, also pushed for the creating of the Pentagon's U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM).
An attempt to separate the merging point of an Arab and African identity is underway. It seeks to draw dividing lines in Africa between a so-called "Black Africa" and a supposedly "non-Black" North Africa. This is part of a scheme to create a schism in Africa between what are assumed to be "Arabs" and so-called "Blacks."
This objective is why the ridiculous identity of an "African South Sudan" and an "Arab North Sudan" have been nurtured and promoted. This is also why black-skinned Libyans have been targeted in a campaign to "colour cleanse" Libya. The Arab identity in North Africa is being de-linked from its African identity. Simultaneously there is an attempt to eradicate the large populations of "black-skinned Arabs" so that there is a clear delineation between "Black Africa" and a new "non-Black" North Africa, which will be turned into a fighting ground between the remaining "non-Black" Berbers and Arabs.
In the same context, tensions are being fomented between Muslims and Christians in Africa, in such places as Sudan and Nigeria, to further create lines and fracture points. The fuelling of these divisions on the basis of skin-colour, religion, ethnicity, and language is intended to fuel disassociation and disunity in Africa. This is all part of a broader African strategy of cutting North Africa off from the rest of the African continent.
Preparing the Chessboard for the "Clash of Civilizations"
It is at this point that all the pieces have to be put together and the dots have to be connected.
The chessboard is being staged for a "Clash of Civilizations" and all the chess pieces are being put into place. The Arab World is in the process of being cordoned off and sharp delineation lines are being created. These lines of delineation are replacing the seamless lines of transition between different ethno-linguistic, skin-colour, and religious groups.
Under this scheme, there can no longer be a melding transition between societies and countries. This is why the Christians in the Middle East and North Africa, such as the Copts, are being targeted. This is also why black-skinned Arabs and black-skinned Berbers, as well as other North African population groups which are black-skinned, are facing genocide in North Africa.
After Iraq and Egypt, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the Syrian Arab Republic are both important points of regional destabilization in North Africa and Southeast Asia respectively. What happens in Libya will have rippling effects on Africa, as what happens in Syria will have rippling effects on Southeast Asia and beyond. Both Iraq and Egypt, in connection with what the Yinon Plan states, have acted as primers for the destabilization of both these Arab states.
What is being staged is the creation of an exclusively "Muslim Middle East" area (excluding Israel) that will be in turmoil over Shiite-Sunni fighting. A similar scenario is being staged for a "non-Black North Africa" area which will be characterized by a confrontation between Arabs and Berber. At the same time, under the "Clash of Civilizations" model, the Middle East and North Africa are slated to simultaneously be in conflict with the so-called "West" and "Black Africa."
This is why both Nicolas Sarzoky, in France, and David Cameron, in Britain, made back-to-back declarations during the start of the conflict in Libya that multiculturalism is dead in their respective Western European societies. [9] Real multiculturalism threatens the legitimacy of the NATO war agenda. It also constitutes an obstacle to the implementation of the "Clash of Civilizations" which constitutes the cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy.
In this regard, Zbigniew Brzezinski, former U.S. National Security Advisor, explains why multiculturalism is a threat to Washington and its allies: "[A]s America becomes an increasingly multicultural society, it may find it more difficult to fashion a consensus on foreign policy issues [e.g., war with the Arab World, China, Iran, or Russia and the former Soviet Union], except in the circumstances of a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat. Such a consensus generally existed throughout World War II and even during the Cold War [and exists now because of the 'Global War on Terror']." [10] Brzezinski's next sentence is the qualifier of why populations would oppose or support wars: "[The consensus] was rooted, however, not only in deeply shared democratic values, which the public sensed were being threatened, but also in a cultural and ethnic affinity for the predominantly European victims of hostile totalitarianisms." [11]
Risking being redundant, it has to be mentioned again that it is precisely with the intention of breaking these cultural affinities between the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region and the so-called "Western World" and sub-Saharan Africa that Christians and black-skinned peoples are being targeted.
Ethnocentrism and Ideology: Justifying Today's "Just Wars"
In the past, the colonial powers of Western Europe would indoctrinate their people. Their objective was to acquire popular support for colonial conquest. This took the form of spreading Christianity and promoting Christian values with the support of armed merchants and colonial armies.
At the same time, racist ideologies were put forth. The people whose lands were colonized were portrayed as "sub-human," inferior, or soulless. Finally, the "White Man's burden" of taking on a mission of civilizing the so-called "uncivilized peoples of the world" was used. This cohesive ideological framework was used to portray colonialism as a "just cause." The latter in turn was used to provide legitimacy to the waging of "just wars" as a means to conquering and "civilizing" foreign lands.
Today, the imperialist designs of the United States, Britain, France, and Germany have not changed. What has changed is the pretext and justification for waging their neo-colonial wars of conquest. During the colonial period, the narratives and justifications for waging war were accepted by public opinion in the colonizing countries, such as Britain and France. Today's "just wars" and "just causes" are now being conducted under the banners of women's rights, human rights, humanitarianism, and democracy.
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Thursday, November 24, 2011

What do You Know About the Power Elite? (Part 1)

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The Power Elite Exposed
By Dennis L. Cuddy, Ph.D.
March 16, 2004
NewsWithViews.com
http://www.newswithviews.com/Cuddy/dennis2.htm
There is… little doubt that the American power elite has… planned and plotted….. The power elite is not altogether 'surfaced.' …With the wide secrecy covering their operations and decisions, the power elite can mark their intentions, operations and further consolidation…. New men come into it [the power elite] and assume its existence without question.
--from The Power Elite (1956) by Columbia University sociologist C. Wright Mills
The nation's immediate problem is that while the common man fights America's wars, the intellectual elite sets its agenda. Today, whether the West lives or dies is in the hands of its new power elite: those who set the terms of public debate, who manipulate the symbols, who decide whether nations or leaders will be depicted on 100 million television sets as 'good' or 'bad.' This power elite sets the limits of the possible for Presidents and Congress. It molds the impressions that move the nation, or that mire it.
--from The Real War (1980) by President Richard Nixon
At the national level, this conditioning of the public might be brought about via certain crises, such as a terrorist attack…. For the sake of peace and security, people may be willing to give up certain of their freedoms to some extent.
--from The Globalists: The Power Elite Exposed (published July 2001, two months before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001) by Dennis L. Cuddy, Ph.D.
Popular national radio talk-show host Rush Limbaugh repeatedly refers to anyone who believes in a one-world government conspiracy involving the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) as a "kook." However, on his February 7, 1995 program, he remarked: "You see, if you amount to anything in Washington these days, it is because you have been plucked or handpicked from an Ivy League school – Harvard, Yale, Kennedy School of Government – you've shown an aptitude to be a good Ivy League type, and so you're plucked so to speak, and you are assigned success. You are assigned a certain role in government somewhere, and then your success is monitored and tracked, and you go where the pluckers and the handpickers can put you."
While there are conspiracies going on in the world today, the pursuit of world government now is no longer conspiratorial in the sense of being hidden or secret. Rather, it's what socialist author H.G. Wells called "The Open Conspiracy," as prominent people such as Bill Clinton have openly written in support of world government. It will probably be a World Socialist Government, synthesizing western capitalism and eastern communism. In fact, Joseph Stalin in a speech at Sverdlov University in April 1924 pronounced that "the amalgamation and collaboration of nations within a single world system of economy… constitutes the material basis for the victory of socialism." And regarding what world government will ultimately mean, it will be authoritarian and repressive, for as Lord Acton wrote: "Absolute power corrupts absolutely."
In 1891, gold and diamond magnate Cecil Rhodes formed a secret society, the Society of the Elect, to "absorb the wealth of the world" and "to take the government of the whole world," according to Rhodes. According to Prof. Carroll Quigley, Bill Clinton's mentor at Georgetown University, in The Anglo-American Establishment, Rhodes' conspiratorial secret society lasted almost 60 years. By that time, enough members of the society and Rhodes scholars had penetrated the areas of politics, economics, journalism and education, so that the society was simply replaced by a network of power elite, who would openly pursue world government.
According to Quigley, "The [Rhodes] scholarships were merely a fa├žade to conceal the secret society, or, more accurately, they were to be one of the instruments by which members of the secret society could carry out Rhodes' purpose." And in case anyone doubts the credibility of Prof. Quigley regarding this matter, The Washington Post article (March 23, 1975) about him and his information obtained from the power elite's "secret records" was titled, "The Professor Who Knew Too Much." [see below]
Cecil Rhodes' secret society was comprised of a small "Circle of Initiates" and a larger semi-secret "Association of Helpers" which formed Round Table Groups.
Rhodes scholars today will tell you that Rhodes abandoned his conspiratorial plans, instead opting simply to establish Rhodes scholarships. However, Association of Helpers member Arnold Toynbee, a world famous British historian, revealed in a June 1931 speech to the Institute for the Study of International Affairs at Copenhagen: "We are at present working discreetly with all our might to wrest this mysterious force called sovereignty out of the clutches of the local nation states of the world. All the time we are denying with our lips what we are doing with our hands, because to impugn the sovereignty of the local nation states of the world is still a heresy for which a statesman or publicist can perhaps not quite be burned at the stake but certainly ostracized or discredited." (See "The Trend of International Affairs Since The War" in the November 1931 edition of the Royal Institute of International Affairs' journal International Affairs.) This was decades after Rhodes established his scholarships.
Members of the Round Table Groups along with members of the Fabian (Socialist) Society as well as "the Inquiry" (a group formed by President Woodrow Wilson's chief advisor, Col. Edward M. House) formed the Royal Institute of International Affairs in Great Britain, and its American branch, the CFR. Both Prof. Quigley in Tragedy and Hope and CFR member Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. in A Thousand Days have referred to the CFR as a "front" for the power elite. And in Men and Powers, former West Germany chancellor Helmut Schmidt referred to the CFR as "the foreign policy elite," which prepared people for "top-level missions" in government and "other centers of international policy" and "had very silent but effective ways of seeing to its own succession."
Members of Rhodes' secret society networked with Fabian Socialists, who established the London School of Economics in 1895. One early Fabian, H.G. Wells, in New Worlds for Old explained what he called "a plot," whereby heads of state would come and go, but bureaucrats trained at the London School of Economics, for example, would remain in government making rules and regulations furthering the goals of the Fabian Socialists. Wells broke with the Fabians, not in terms of goals, but only in believing they should be open about them, as he explained the coming synthesis of western capitalism and eastern communism into a world socialist government. In this regard, he authored The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution (1928) and The New World Order (1939), in which he said sovereign states (nations) would end and "countless people… will hate the new world order… and will die protesting against it."
The power elite understood that it would be difficult to get the people of the world to accept a world government all at once, and so a gradualistic approach was suggested. Association of Helpers member and Canadian Rhodes scholar P.E. Corbett in Post-War Worlds (1942) wrote: "A world association binding together and coordinating regional groupings of states may evolve toward one universal federal government…. World government is the ultimate aim, but there is more chance of attaining it by gradual development." More recently, at Mikhail Gorbachev's first State of the World Forum in 1995, Zbigniew Brzezinski (President Jimmy Carter's National Security Advisor) announced that we "cannot leap into world government through one quick step, but rather via progressive regionalization."
During the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the trend toward socialism was obvious, but even after World War II it continued, as U.S. Rep. Carroll Reece on April 6, 1956 delivered a speech saying, "We approach closer and closer to socialism," and "The foundation-financed cartel promotes the idea of government by an elite." One of the elite was Rhodes scholar Walt Rostow who, in The United States in the World Arena (1960), proposed "an end to nationhood as it has been historically defined." He became Deputy National Security Advisor for President John F. Kennedy, whose Secretary of State was Rhodes scholar Dean Rusk, who in September 1961 issued "Freedom From War: The U.S. Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World."
The same year "Freedom From War" was issued, another Rhodes scholar, Richard Gardner, became Deputy Assistant Secretary of State and three years later, while still in that position, authored In Pursuit of World Order. The Foreword to this book was written by Rhodes scholar Harlan Cleveland, who has been a CFR member, Ambassador to NATO, Director of International Affairs at the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, and Chairman of the U.S. Weather Modification Advisory Board. Cleveland's books include The Third Try at World Order, Birth of a New World, and The Global Commons: Policy for the Planet.
How would "World Order" be pursued? In the April 1974 edition of the CFR's Foreign Affairs, Richard Gardner wrote in "The Hard Road to World Order," that it would involve "an end run around national sovereignty, eroding it piece by piece." He believed that approach would "accomplish much more than the old-fashioned frontal assault," and he further explained how GATT could be involved in the process. Gardner would eventually become an advisor on the United Nations to CFR member Bill Clinton’s first presidential campaign, after which he would become U.S. Ambassador to Spain, from which would come Marxist Javier Solana as the head of NATO with the support of the Clinton administration.
Bill Clinton had become a Rhodes scholar in the late 1960s with support from Prof. Quigley and Rhodes scholar U.S. Senator J. William Fulbright, who had authored Old Myths and New Realities (1964), announcing: "Indeed, the concept of national sovereignty has become in our time a principle of international anarchy…. The sovereign nation can no longer serve as the ultimate unit of personal loyalty and responsibility."
During then Governor Clinton's 1992 presidential campaign, his Rhodes scholar roommate at Oxford University, CFR director Strobe Talbott, wrote in Time (July 20, 1992) that "perhaps national sovereignty wasn't such a great idea after all…. But it has taken the events in our own wondrous and terrible century to clinch the case for world government." For that article, Talbott would receive the World Federalist Association's "Norman Cousins Global Governance Award," and on June 22, 1993, President Clinton would send a congratulatory letter to the WFA regarding the award, saying that previous WFA president Norman Cousins had worked for world peace "and world government." President Clinton ended the letter by wishing the WFA "future success." The WFA's objective is world federal government, and in 1994 it published The Genius of Federation: Why World Federation Is the Answer to Global Problems, in which it strategized: "Let the U.N. establish new agencies such as the International Criminal Court…. National sovereignty would be gradually eroded until it is no longer an issue. Eventually a world federation can be formally adopted with little resistance." In November 2003, the WFA merged with the Campaign for United Nations Reform to form a new organization called Citizens for Global Solutions with the motto "Building a World Community Under Law."
During his presidency, Bill Clinton would also develop a close relationship with British Prime Minister Tony Blair (a vice-president of Socialist International), whose "The Third Way: New Politics for the New Century" calling for "ethical socialism" was published in September 1998 by the Fabian (Socialist) Society. And in The Washington Post (April 7, 1999), Rhodes scholar E.J. Dionne, Jr. wrote "A World Safe for Socialism," describing how the Democratic Leadership Council "found itself playing host… to four Western European leaders whose parties have socialist and social democratic roots…. All subscribe to versions of the 'Third Way' approach to politics that Blair and Clinton have been marketing."
When Bill Clinton was first campaigning for the presidency, he took a "tough" stand concerning policy toward Communist China. However, over the years of his presidency, his policies toward that nation took a dramatically more friendly shift. On ABC's "This Week" (March 15, 1997), Rhodes scholar and former Clinton administration communications director George Stephanopoulos (CFR member) revealed: "There were a lot of reasons the president changed his policy on China…. It had little to do with [Chinese] contributions." And when Cokie Roberts on the same program, said, "It had more to do with American money," Stephanopoulos replied: "Council on Foreign Relations, Lehman Brothers, Goldman-Sachs, absolutely." Quite a few Rhodes scholars have occupied high-level positions with Goldman-Sachs over the years.
At this point, someone might say that they understand that Cecil Rhodes had a secret society to take over the world, and that Rhodes scholars like Robert Reich, Ira Magaziner, James Woolsey and others played important roles in the Clinton Administration. But, they might say, "That's all over, isn't it, now that Clinton has left office?"
It's important to remember, though, in this regard what Prof. Quigley said in Tragedy and Hope. He noted that William C. Whitney and others of wealth in the late 19th century developed a plan whereby they would control both major political parties through financial contributions, and then have those parties alternate power so that the public would think it had a choice. Prof. Quigley said that Whitney's plan lasted about 16 years, and after that, the "Eastern Establishment" (power elite) moved the Democrat and Republican presidential candidates toward the political center, "assiduously fostering the process behind the scenes." Prof. Quigley also said, "the process was concealed, as much as possible," and Quigley himself believed "the two parties should be almost identical, so that the American people can 'throw the rascals out' at any election without leading to any profound or extensive shifts in policy."
William C. Whitney and his son were members of Yale University’s secret society Skull & Bones. And while Rhodes scholars were penetrating the areas of education, economics, journalism and politics, Skull & Bones member and Fabian Socialist ally Daniel Coit Gilman brought G. Stanley Hall to Johns Hopkins University, where he mentored Fabian Socialist ally John Dewey, the "father of progressive education," who said in Individualism, Old and New that "we are in for some kind of socialism."
In economics, Skull & Bones member Thomas Daniels was Chairman of the Board of Archer-Daniels-Midland transnational corporation, and Fabian Socialist John Maynard Keynes was promoting his debt-laden "Keynesian economics," which President Richard Nixon (CFR member) in a January 4, 1971 interview with Rhodes scholar Howard K. Smith said he had now adopted. On September 30, 2001 on "Fox News Sunday," Skull & Bones member President George W. Bush's chief-of-staff Andrew Card also said he believed a combination of supply-side and Keynesian economics works best.
In journalism, just as Rhodes scholars like Erwin Canham (president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors) and newsmen Howard K. Smith and Charles Collingwood along with Fabian (Socialist) Society members like Walter Lippmann (member of "the Inquiry" and CFR founding member) became prominent, Skull & Bones members Richard Ely Danielson became publisher of Atlantic Monthly, Russell Wheeler Davenport became editor of Fortune, William F. Buckley, Jr. became publisher of National Review, and Henry Luce became the founder of Time. Luce biographer Robert Herzstein wrote: "Early on, young Harry [Henry Luce] learned that a powerful circle of contacts and friends could move the world."
In politics, Skull & Bones member William Howard Taft in 1912 lost his presidential re-election bid in a three-way race similar to that of 1992 when Skull & Bones member George H.W. Bush lost his re-election bid to Bill Clinton. In 1912, Taft lost to Gov. Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat whose chief advisor Col. Edward M. House had promoted in Philip Dru: Administrator "socialism as dreamed of by Karl Marx." And in 1992, President George H.W. Bush lost to Rhodes scholar Bill Clinton, who soon thereafter introduced a health care plan about which Milton Friedman on C-Span (Nov. 20, 1994) said: "You can’t think of a more Socialist program than the health care program that he [Bill Clinton] tried to get us to adopt."
Relevant to Prof. Quigley's reference to William C. Whitney’s plan for an alternation of power and the power elite’s promotion of Democrat and Republican presidential candidates whose foreign policy views are similarly globalist, Skull & Bones member George W. Bush then succeeded Bill Clinton as president, but foreign policy remained basically the same, which is what the power elite want. George W. Bush, his father, and Bill Clinton all supported such things as NAFTA, GATT, the World Trade Organization, U.N. peacekeeping operations, and Most Favored Nation trading status for Communist China. And like his father and Bill Clinton, President George W. Bush (whose website for his presidential campaign of 2000 was with Illuminati Online) has appointed notable CFR members to high-level positions in his administration. They include Colin Powell, Christine Todd Whitman, Elaine Chao, Condoleezza Rice and Robert Zoellick. Vice-President Dick Cheney is also a CFR member, and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld is a former CFR member.
In the presidential campaign of 2004, among the leading Democratic challengers to President Bush were General Wesley Clark (Rhodes scholar from Little Rock, Arkansas) and U.S. Senator John Edwards, whose primary domestic policy advisor was Bruce Reed (Rhodes scholar who was President Clinton’s Domestic Policy Council deputy assistant). Though each of these candidates won a state's primary, U.S. Senator John Kerry has won far more primary states and is the presumptive Democratic nominee for President. Like President George W. Bush, Sen. Kerry is also a member of Skull & Bones, so whether the Democratic or Republican nominee wins the election in November 2004, a member of Skull & Bones will be President. And like President Bush, Sen. Kerry has also supported NAFTA, GATT, etc., which are vitally important to the power elite.
At this point, someone might argue that neither President George H.W. Bush nor his son, President George W. Bush, promotes socialism per se, and that is correct. But it should be remembered that what is at work is a "process," and when President George H.W. Bush gave us national education goals and his son's federal education budget is the largest ever, including an element of "accountability" to the federal Department of Education, that cannot be considered a movement away from socialism. Similarly, when President George H.W. Bush and his son both show some deference to the U.N., which is overwhelmingly dominated by socialist nations, that cannot be considered a movement away from a world socialist government. Is there really any substantial difference between President George H.W. Bush saying the Gulf War against Iraq was conducted under the authority of a U.N. resolution, and Bill Clinton saying on October 19, 1993 regarding Somalia that his administration is engaging in a political process "to see how we can… do all the things the United Nations ordered [us] to do"? And in case one doesn't believe the U.N. is pursuing world government status, what else can one call it when the U.N.'s International Criminal Tribunal claims the right to indict even an elected head of state of a sovereign nation and pursue him anywhere in the world?
Concerning the United Nations, one can find examples of both Rhodes scholar and Skull & Bones involvement. At the suggestion of President Clinton, U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali made Rhodes scholar James Gustave Speth head of the U.N. Development Program. This was after Vice-President Bush in 1986 had recommended Skull & Bones member William Henry Draper III for the same position. Incidentally, Draper in 1977 had contributed $93,000 to Skull & Bones member George W. Bush's first company, Arbusto Energy, of which Salem bin Laden (Osama bin Laden's brother) was also a founder. Regarding other Skull & Bones members around George H.W. Bush (whose brother, Jonathan, is a member), Christopher Buckley (William F. Buckley, Jr.'s son) is a member of this Yale University secret society and was a speechwriter for Vice-President Bush. And member Bruce S. Gelb (CFR member) was director of the U.S. Information Agency and later Ambassador to Belgium after Vice-President Bush became President. And regarding President George W. Bush, he appointed a number of fellow Skull & Bones members including Edward McNally (General Counsel to the Office of Homeland Security), William Howard Taft IV (legal counsel to Secretary of State Colin Powell), and William Henry Donaldson (Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission).
In the U.S. Government, there has also been matching Rhodes scholar and Skull & Bones involvement. In the executive branch, at the same time Rhodes scholar Strobe Talbott was becoming number two at the State Department, President Clinton had appointed Skull & Bones member Winston Lord (former CFR president) as an Assistant Secretary of State. And just as President John F. Kennedy had a number of Rhodes scholars at high levels in his administration, Skull & Bones members McGeorge Bundy and brother William Bundy occupied high-level positions then as well. William Bundy also worked for the CIA as have other Skull & Bones members such as William F. Buckley, Jr., his brother James Buckley, William Sloane Coffin, Archibald MacLeish, Richard Bissell, F. Trubee Davison, Amory Howe Bradford (officer of The New York Times from the mid-1940s until 1963), Richard Drain, Howard Weaver, and Hugh Cunningham (also a Rhodes scholar). Skull & Bones member George H.W. Bush actually headed the CIA as have Rhodes scholars Stansfield Turner and James Woolsey.
Regarding the military, Skull & Bones member Henry Stimson (who initiated George H.W. Bush into the same secret society) was Secretary of War in the administration of President Franklin Roosevelt, and President Clinton appointed Rhodes scholar Gen. Wesley Clark as head of NATO forces. President Clinton also appointed Rhodes scholar Richard Danzig as Secretary of the Navy and Rhodes scholar Admiral Dennis C. Blair as Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Pacific Command.
In the legislative branch, a number of Rhodes scholars and Skull & Bones members have been in Congress, and former U.S. Senator David Boren (CFR member) is both a Rhodes scholar and Skull & Bones member, who on August 26, 1992 wrote an article in The New York Times advocating a rapid deployment force for the U.N. to facilitate "the new world order." During the Clinton presidency, Sen. Boren as a Rhodes scholar persuaded President Clinton to make George Tenet head of the CIA, and then Sen. Boren as a Skull & Bones member persuaded fellow Bonesman President George W. Bush to keep Tenet in that important position.
In the judicial branch, the U.S. Supreme Court has included Skull & Bones members Potter Stewart and William Howard Taft (Chief Justice), and Rhodes scholars John Harlan, David Souter, and Byron White. One of Justice White's law clerks was Rhodes scholar David Kendall, who was also President Clinton's attorney during the Monica Lewinsky scandal.
Outside of government, of course, Rhodes scholars and Skull & Bones members have also been involved in important areas of American life, such as finance. Earlier it was mentioned how quite a few Rhodes scholars have worked for Goldman-Sachs over the years, and Skull & Bones members Averell Harriman, his brother E. Roland Harriman, and Prescott Sheldon Bush (George H.W. Bush's father) were partners in Brown Brothers, Harriman & Co.
These individuals have formed a network of power over the years, and although not every Rhodes scholar and Skull & Bones member has been plotting to take over the world, they are, for the most part, an elite whose globalist goals must be resisted by Americans who oppose any diminution of our Constitutional freedoms or our national sovereignty.
How might this diminution occur? At the top of page 303 of my book, The Globalists: The Power Elite Exposed, published in July 2001, I state: "At the national level, this conditioning of the public might be brought about via certain crises, such as a terrorist attack…. For the sake of peace and security, people may be willing to give up certain of their freedoms to some extent." Then on September 11, terrorists attacked the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., and the World Trade Center in New York City, and a few hours later ABC News/Washington Post released poll results showing two-thirds "say they would sacrifice some personal liberties in support of anti-terrorism efforts." Does this mean the power elite plotted the attacks on September 11? After all, didn't the public affairs website indiareacts.com report on June 26 that the U.S. and Russia plan "'limited military action' against the Taliban if the contemplated tough new economic sanctions don't bend Afghanistan's fundamentalist regime"? And didn't the PBS program "Jihad in America" in 1994 show radical Muslims speaking in the U.S. over a decade ago and saying they would attack our airplanes and go after our high buildings? And in the same year of 1994, didn't Islamic terrorists hijack a plane in Algiers, intending to fly the passenger aircraft full of fuel into a tall prominent structure, the Eiffel Tower, exploding the plane over Paris?
Closer to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, didn’t AirlineBiz.com on June 23, 2001 carry a report by a Muslim who had just interviewed Osama bin Laden and concluded that it was a race to see whether the U.S. would attack bin Laden first or he would attack the U.S. first? Shortly after this report, didn't the Northwest Airlines flight attendants' website carry a "Backgrounder" by Washington Times reporter Bill Gertz referring to Project Bojinka with hijacked airliners flying into the World Trade Center, Pentagon and other buildings? Then on September 10, 2001, didn't some top Pentagon officials suddenly cancel their travel plans for the next morning apparently because of security concerns, according to two reports by Newsweek? And on the evening of September 10, 2001, eight hours before the terrorist attacks of September 11, didn't San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown's security people at the airport there call him before his flight to New York City the morning of September 11 and advise him that he and all Americans should be cautious about their air travel (see The San Francisco Chronicle, September 12, page A17)? How could our leaders following the September 11 terrorist attacks here say that no one could have imagined such a thing would occur? I filed a Freedom of Information request regarding any warnings, alerts, or emergency rulings by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) or other government agencies pertaining to transportation between May 2001 and September 15 of that year. The Department of Homeland Security replied they had found 12 relevant Information Circulars, but they would not let me see them.
Wasn't Marcus Mabry's Newsweek Web Exclusive of September 15, 2001, about the terrorist attacks and their aftermath titled, "Welcome to the New World Order"? And didn't Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien say on September 29, 2001, that "there will probably be a new order in the world that will probably be better than we have now"?
No, the power elite actually didn't plot the attacks of September 11. They didn’t have to. Remember that Rhodes' conspiracy ended as such around 1960 because enough like-minded globalists were in key positions in politics, economics, education and journalism, and his conspiracy was no longer necessary (being replaced by a global network of power elite pursuing world government). When a student several years ago went on a shooting rampage, the press rarely reported that he was stopped by a teacher with a gun, because the press is overwhelmingly for gun control. The power elite did not have to call editors of the nation’s newspapers and tell them what to say.
Similarly, the power elite didn't call up terrorists and tell them to fly into the Pentagon and World Trade Center. However, if I could forecast terrorist attacks, so can the power elite.
Rather, there is a dialectic at work here. You may recall that under at State Department contract, CFR member Lincoln Bloomfield in 1962 wrote: "A world effectively controlled by the United Nations is one in which 'world government' would come about through the establishment of supranational institutions, characterized by… some ability to employ physical force…. [But] if the communist dynamic was greatly abated, the West might lose whatever incentive it has for world government." Interestingly, Bloomfield also wrote that the world government could come about by means of "a grave crisis or war to bring about a sudden transformation in national attitudes sufficient for the purpose…. The order we examine may be brought into existence as a result of a series of sudden, nasty, and traumatic shocks."
Relevant to today, it is the reaction (public willingness to give up some Constitutional freedoms) to the action (terrorist attack wherever and whenever and however it occurs) that is important to the power elite. Thus, they don't have to cause the action, but only anticipate that it will occur sometime, and emphasize the public reaction to it to further their goals. And in case anyone doesn't believe the power elite wants a diminution of our Constitutional freedoms and our national sovereignty, just look at Our Global Neighborhood: The Basic Vision, a document produced several years ago by The Commission on Global Governance, whose work was supported by then U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Members of the Commission included Maurice Strong (Secretary-General of the Rio Earth Summit, co-author of the current Earth Charter, and right-hand man of U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan) and Barber Conable (former president of the World Bank). Among the Commission’s proposals are that "a new world order must be organized…. In certain fields, sovereignty has to be exercised collectively…. The principle of sovereignty must be adapted in such a way as to balance… the interests of nations with the interests of the global neighborhood…. We strongly endorse community initiatives to… encourage the disarming of civilians…. We would like to see a permanent international criminal court instituted as a matter of the highest priority…. We are… in need of a mobilizing principle… a new world order that secures the ascendancy of global neighborhood values over divisive nationalism."
Of course, the public will have to be prepared to accept world government, and what better way to do that than via education. The primary arm of the U.N. dealing with education is UNESCO, and in its first Director-General Sir Julian Huxley's UNESCO: Its Purpose and Its Philosophy (1948), he wrote: "Political unification in some sort of world government will be required." On October 3, 2003, on the occasion of the U.S. rejoining UNESCO (after President Reagan had withdrawn the U.S.), U.S. Secretary of Education Rod Paige declared: "The United States is pleased to return to UNESCO…. Our governments have entrusted us with the responsibility of preparing our children to become citizens of the world…. UNESCO is a powerful forum for sharing our views, developing a common strategy, and implementing joint action." The problem with the concept of "world citizens" is that just as "citizens" of a state have to obey the laws of that state, "citizens of the world" will be expected to obey world laws. And the clear majority of the world's nations are socialist, so that world laws will reflect a socialist perspective.
The conditioning of the public in the past has been gradual, but as famous author H.G. Wells noted, the process will speed up in the end as the synthesis toward a World Socialist Government gains greater momentum. Hopefully, Americans will wake up before it’s too late and resist this global effort on the part of the power elite.
© 2004 Dennis Cuddy - All Rights Reserved
Dennis Laurence Cuddy, historian and political analyst, received a Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (major in American History, minor in political science). Dr. Cuddy has taught at the university level, has been a political and economic risk analyst for an international consulting firm, and has been a Senior Associate with the U.S. Department of Education.
Cuddy has also testified before members of Congress on behalf of the U.S. Department of Justice. Dr. Cuddy has authored or edited seventeen books and booklets, and has written hundreds of articles appearing in newspapers around the nation, including The Washington Post, Los Angeles Times and USA Today. He has been a guest on numerous radio talk shows in various parts of the country, such as ABC Radio in New York City, and he has also been a guest on the national television programs USA Today and CBS's Nightwatch.
Also See:
The Professor Who Knew Too Much
Borrowing a few crucial pages from his book, the ultra-right made a scholar an unwilling hero.
The Washington Post Sunday Magazine
23 March 1975
By Rudy Maxa
Greetings, Dr. Quigley: With reference to your book, Tragedy and Hope, at which I am presently directing much of my energies, I would appreciate a short explanation as to why you generally approve of the conspiracy. I enclose a self-addressed envelope for your convenience.
-- from a letter postmarked Rahway, N.J.
In 1966, Macmillan Company published the history of the world between 1895 and 1965 as seen through the cool, gray eyes of Carroll Quigley, a professor of history at Georgetown’s School of Foreign Service. The 1,348-page tome, called Tragedy and Hope, was a commanding work, 20 years in the writing, that added to Quigley’s considerable national reputation as a historian.
But though he had no way of knowing it, Quigley had just written his own ticket to a curious kind of fame. He was about to become a reluctant hero to Americans who believe the world is neatly controlled by a clique of international bankers and their cronies. He was about to learn of the country’s awesome appetite for believing a grand conspiracy causes everything from big wars to bad weather.
Strangers would soon call to bend Quigley’s ear about secret societies. Insistent letters from Rahway, N.J., among other places, would clutter his desk. And eventually, Tragedy and Hope would be pirated by zealots who would sell the book in the same brochures that advertise such doomsday products as “Minutemen Survival Tabs,” concentrated vitamin tablets to help patriots survive sieges by foreign enemies.
It was the John Birch Society that really catapulted -- or dragged -- Quigley front-and-center into the conspiracy picture. Just before the 1972 primary, voters in New Hampshire opened their mail and found copies of a breathlessly-written paperback, None Dare Call It Conspiracy. The book, researched, written and recommended by Birch Society members, warned that public figures as different as John Gardner and Henry Kissinger were part of a conspiracy centered around the Establishment’s unofficial club, New York’s Council on Foreign Relations.
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For identifying “a power-mad clique (that) wants to control the world,”
Quigley was labeled “the Joseph Valachi of political conspiracies.”
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None Dare Call It Conspiracy used exclamation points, charts of power networks and heavy rhetoric to awaken Americans to their diminishing freedoms. And much of the hoopla was based on a mere 25 pages from Quigley’s book which, None Dare Call It Conspiracy said, “revealed the existence of the conspiratorial network” of a “power-mad clique (that) wants to control and rule the world.” Quigley was “the Joseph Valachi of political conspiracies” for fingering the bankers and power brokers -- the Insiders.” And a photograph of Quigley shared a page with no less than financier J. P. Morgan.
John Birch Society President Robert Welch predicted distribution of 15 million copies of None Dare Call It Conspiracy, part of a “gigantic flare from educational materials called forth by the emotions and events of a crucial election year.” As copies began to spread across the country, Quigley began to grasp what the selective, unauthorized quotation from his work could mean. The approach to history taken by the authors of None Dare Call It Conspiracy offended Quigley’s scholastic sensibilities. Worse, he found he could not fight back against the misinformation he felt was being disseminated with the aid of his research and his name. “It blackened my reputation,” Quigley said, “amongst scholarly historians who are going to say, ‘Oh, he’s one of those right-wing nuts.’”
Professor Carroll Quigley -- B.A., M.A., and Ph.D., all from Harvard in the ‘30s -- is a trim, engaging man who points to his good-sized nose and broad, high forehead with some pride. The physical characteristics mark him as a Carroll and a stroll past the statue of Georgetown University’s founder, John Carroll, points up the resemblance.
Quigley does not descend directly from those Carrolls, the landed Marylanders who were influential enough in the Revolutionary years to have a signature on the Constitution. Instead, Quigley’s maternal ancestors were the less affluent Carrolls left behind in Ireland who only got around to making it to Halifax a few generations ago. On his father’s side, the Quigleys were so poor they couldn’t even wait for the potato famine to leave Ireland for Boston in 1828.
Quigley talks genealogy with a historian’s precision, spins family stories like a true Irishman, and more: he understands, and tells his listener he understands, how his past shaped him. Young Carroll Quigley lived on the edge of the Irish ghetto in Boston and mixed it up in the streets with Yankees, Italians, Russian Jews and a few blacks, a melting pot of a childhood that Quigley says cast a strong base for his adult writings and teachings.
He cultivated the spirit of the Irish and honed the intellectual interests of the Yankees while attending the Boston Latin School, whose list of distinguished graduates stretches from Benjamin Franklin to Leonard Bernstein. Harvard came next in a natural sort of way and Quigley intended to go into science until he decided "there were a lot a good people in science but nobody good in history."
He kept current in science but formally attacked history; he was no slouch in either. Quigley's Harvard tutor in medieval and ancient history, the late Donald McKay, told him he could be Harvard's first summa cum laude graduate in history in seven years -- "You could be a summa!" he exhorted Quigley -- but the undergraduate chose instead to settle for a magna cum laude for fear of shortchanging his emotional development.
After teaching stints at Princeton and Harvard. Quigley came to Georgetown University in 1941 and became an on-line resource for Washington. He lectured at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, the Brookings Institution, the Stare Department's Foreign Service Institute and consulted with the Smithsonian and the Senate Select Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences.
To those duties and to his teachings he brought his holist philosophy, the belief that knowledge cannot be divided into parts, that the world can be viewed only as an interlocking, complex system. The philosophy complemented his life: he had reveled in the traditions and contrasts of his neighborhood, eschewed the summa in favor of keeping his emotional and social development on track, and applied himself to science and economics as well as history. His passion to consider the “big picture" never cooled.
Quigley has no small regret that some of the best minds of his generation insist on treating the world in a 19th Century fashion by tinkering with its problems as a mechanic looks at an engine: spreading the separate parts on the floor and considering each one to find the malfunction. This reductionist way of thinking, Quigley maintains, has gotten Western civilization into all kinds of trouble.
We cluck our tongues about inflation while stores offer expensive Christmas goods with liberal credit schedules that don't call for a first payment until spring. We bellyache about accumulating trash and energy shortages but spend precious little discovering how garbage can become an energy source. That kind of small thinking annoys Professor Carroll Quigley. It annoys him almost as much as if someone took the narrow view that a clique of "Insiders" controlled the world.
The historian's mind remembers the summer of '43 well: the temperature topped 90 degrees 59 days that year, and one stretch lasted 15 days. Quigley, still so Boston formal that he kept his suitcoat on during lectures, was charged with teaching the history of the world to 750 military personnel who had just finished their heavy mid-day meal. Five days a week, for one year, Quigley stood in Gaston Hall and prepared the soldiers for the military occupation of the countries in the European theater that the Allied forces expected to conquer.
From those frenzied months of preparing for his crash courses grew Quigley’s eight-pound Tragedy and Hope. The title reflects his feeling that "Western civilization is going down the drain." That is the tragedy. When the book came out in 1966, Quigley honestly thought the whole show could he salvaged; that was his hope. He will not say as much today.
The section in his history that was to so fascinate the political right concerned the formation of the Council on Foreign Relations and the actions of several famous banking houses. Quigley broke some new ground in his research in the late 1940s; 20 years later the right seized Quigley's findings and drew some broad conclusions.
Quigley had noticed that many prominent Englishmen and outstanding British scholars were members of an honorary society called Fellows of All Souls College. While Quigley was studying the 149 members, a former Fellow visited Washington to speak, Quigley began chatting with him about the Fellows of All Souls College. You mean the Round Table Group, the visitor said. What Quigley asked, is the Round Table Group? After considerable research, Quigley knew.
"I learned the Round Table Group was very influential,” Quigley says. "I knew they were the real founders of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and I knew they were the founders of the Institute of Pacific Relations. I knew that they were the godfathers of the Council on Foreign Relations. So I began to put this thing together and I found that this group was working for a number of things.
"It was a secret group. Its members were working to federate the English-speaking world. They were closely linked to international bankers. They were working to establish what I call a three-power world: England and the U.S., Hitler's Germany and Soviet Russia. They said, 'We can control Germany because it is boxed in between the Atlantic bloc and the Russians. The Russians will behave because they're boxed in between the Atlantic bloc and the American Navy in Singapore.’ Now, notice that this is essentially a balance of power system," Quigley says.
None Dare Call It Conspiracy, using Quigley's data, attributed to the Round Table Group a lust for world domination. Its sympathies were pro-Communist, anti-Capitalist, said the Birch Society book.
"They thought Dr. Carroll Quigley proved everything." Quigley says. "For example, they constantly misquote me to this effect: that Lord Milner (the dominant trustee of the Cecil Rhodes Trust and a heavy in the Round Table Group) helped finance the Bolsheviks. I have been through the greater part of Milner's private papers and have found no evidence to support that.
"Further, None Due Call It Conspiracy insists that international bankers were a single bloc, were all powerful and remain so today. I, on the contrary, stated in my book that they were much divided, often fought among themselves, had great influence but not control of political life and were sharply reduced in power about 1931-1940, when they became less influential than monopolized industry.”
Tragedy and Hope received mixed, though generally favorable, reviews. Opined the Library Journal: "Mr. Quigley . . . has written a very remarkable book: very long, very detailed, very critical, very daring and very good.... His coverage of the world is amazingly encyclopedic and well-balanced." Saturday Review was less flattering: "For those who approve of this way of writing history, his rambling volume may have a certain excellence.” Said the New York Times: "The book provides a business-like narrative in which an incredible amount of information is compressed -- and in some cases presented -- with drama and distinction.”
But from the right, Quigley earned kudos for nailing the seminal data on the Round Table Group that helped found the Council on Foreign Relations. His dispassionate presentation, however, did not sit so well. While Quigley's findings earned him pages of quotation (in apparent violation of copyright laws), None Dare Call It Conspiracy sniped: “... the conspirators have had no qualms about fomenting wars, depressions and hatred. They want a monopoly which would eliminate all competitors and destroy the free enterprise system. And Professor Quigley of Harvard, Princeton and Georgetown approves!"
“You see,” Quigley says, "originally the John Birch periodical had me as a great guy for revealing everything. But then they became absolutely sour and now they denounce me as a member of the Establishment. I'm just baffled by the whole thing.”
Quigley was first quoted by Gary Allen, the author of None Dare Call It Conspiracy, in a 1968 book called Nixon: The Man Behind the Mask. Then, an instructor at Brigham Young University in Utah, a Cleo[n] Skousens, wrote The Naked Capitalist and again quoted Quigley extensively. But None Dare Call It Conspiracy was the big seller. Nearly five million copies of the book have been sold to date, according to the publisher, Concord Press in California, and a new German language edition is selling well.
Author and Birch Society member Gary Allen is one of Quigley's biggest fans, but he laughs a huge laugh when told Quigley is the most reluctant of heroes. Of course, says Allen good-naturedly, the Establishment could not be pleased Quigley revealed so much about a Council on Foreign Relation, which prefers to swing its weight quietly.
"They don't like this thing talked about because it is the real power structure," Allen says from California. "Dr. Quigley let the cat out of the bag. He had the liberal academic credentials. I'm sure a lot of people are very unhappy with him for telling tales out of school.
Allen did not talk to Quigley before he began quoting from Tragedy and Hope because Allen understood from "some intelligence people in Washington" that Quigley was arrogant and unapproachable. "So I took him at his word that he had had access to the private records of the Round Table Group,” Allen says. "Now he’s trying to duck the importance of what he wrote by saying we picked only a few pages out of a 1,400-page book."
After the books came the letters. Brother Nelson Goodwin, a self-styled Nevada "hobo" evangelist was moved last summer to take pencil in hand and write, "Brother Carroll: I have heard somewhere that ‘Snake Eyes Joe Enlai’ and ‘Mousey Dung’ and ‘Snake in the Grass Fidel Castro’ all received their poison atheistic doctrine in the Universities and Colleges of America. Thank God for Men like you who love our Beautiful United States, the finest nation on the earth. “ Others, like the writer from Rahway, wanted to know why Quigley "approved of the conspiracy." Quigley has gotten handy at fielding the curve balls.
"You can't believe what people think,” he says. "Some believe it is all a Jewish conspiracy, that is part of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion which we now know were perpetuated by the Czarist Russian police force in 1904. And that this conspiracy is the same thing as the Illuminati, a secret society founded in 1776 in Bavaria. And that the Illuminati are a branch of the Masons. There are some people who say the Society of Cincinnati, of which George Washington was a member during the American Revolution, was a branch of the Illuminati and that's why the Masons built their monument in Alexandria to George Washington, since he was a Mason and head of the Illuminati before he helped start the Society of Cincinnati. See what I mean?"
If he chose to, Quigley could probably spend the rest of his life battling the people who are using his research to bolster their own conclusions. But he has narrowed the battle to stopping the illegal publication of Tragedy and Hope.
For reasons not clear to Quigley (but he does not attribute it to any conspiracy), Macmillan stopped publishing Tragedy and Hope alter it sold 9,000 copies. Suddenly pirate editions began appearing, almost exact photo-reproductions with identical dust jackets and binding. The original book had yellow-edged pages, a touch either missed or considered too costly by whoever decided to begin offering Tragedy and Hope on the sly. Carroll Quigley quickly became a right-wing underground sensation.
"We have discovered a limited quantity which we offer to informed patriots on a first come, first served basis for only $20 each,” read one brochure offering the pirate copies. "For the first time, one of the 'insiders' of the international 'elite' gives a candid account of the world of monopoly capitalism. Not easy reading, but it is essential reading for those who consider themselves in-depth students of the conspiracy."
Quigley hired a lawyer who managed to stop at least one of the pirate presses. Then, working through an intermediary, Quigley sold a West Coast press the right to re-print 2,000 copies of his book to retail for $25 each, from the Georgetown University bookstore. As long as the right insists on selling his book, Quigley reasons he might as well get his piece of the action. He has no such interest in jumping aboard the conspiracy bandwagon.
"I generally think that any conspiracy theory of history is nonsense," Quigley says, "for the simple reason that most conspiracies that we know about seem to me to be conspiracies of losers, people who have been defeated on the historical platforms of public happenings. The Ku Klux Klan had. its arguments destroyed and defeated in the Civil War but because it was not prepared to accept that, the KKK formed a conspiracy to fight underground.
"Now, there is not the slightest doubt that the international bankers have tried to make banking into a mystery. But we are dealing with two different things. I don't think that is a conspiracy; because something is a secret does not mean it is a conspiracy."
The seductive beauty of believing the world is in the grip of one conspiracy or another, however, is that any argument against a conspiracy is simply proof of how clever the conspirators are; red herrings are only a mark of the cunning of the conspirators, says the true believer.
Quigley is weary of tilting with conspiratorial windmills. He is 65 and intends to retire after this academic year. He has books unfinished. None of which, he hastens to add, have to do with conspiracy.
On his farm in West Virginia, Quigley is working on a book on the relationship of weapon systems to the stability of the world. He rests there on weekends and gardens between writing. But still the calls come, many from Texas, Florida and California, Quigley notices. One conspiracy hound called and talked for 20 minutes. Quigley finally said he had to return to his work.
"Just one more question," the caller said. "Just tell me this: why is Nelson Rockefeller a Communist?"
"I don't know," replied Quigley evenly. "I don't think he is but if you know he is and you want to know why he is, why don't you call him up and ask him."
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Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Canada - First Nations are Victims of the Government! (Part 2)

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‘An aboriginal uprising is inevitable’ if Harper doesn’t listen, chief threatens
By Peter O’Neil
Postmedia News Jan 23, 2012
OTTAWA — Canada could face an Arab Spring-style “uprising” if Prime Minister Stephen Harper doesn’t give a clear indication in his meeting with aboriginal leaders here Tuesday that he’s prepared to take their concerns seriously, a B.C. native leader warned Monday.
“We must do better. The honour of the Crown and the very integrity of Canada as a nation is at stake,” said Stewart Phillip, grand chief of the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, in a news release issued by the Assembly of First Nations’ B.C. wing.
“Otherwise, an aboriginal uprising is inevitable.”
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Prime Minister Stephen Harper talks with Assembly of First Nations Chief Shawn Atleo.
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An estimated 400 chiefs from across Canada, including 47 from British Columbia and 22 from Alberta, have gathered here for their first face-to-face meeting with Harper since the Conservatives formed government in 2006.
Harper was to meet with a select group of chiefs late Monday afternoon, then meet again until lunchtime Tuesday before departing for Davos, Switzerland, to take part in the World Economic Forum gathering of global political and business elites.
Some participants are optimistic in advance of their meeting with Harper, who won accolades for his residential schools apology and endorsement of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
But others remain skeptical.
George Stanley, the AFN’s regional chief in Alberta, said he suspects Harper is simply trying to get a “photo op” to prove he consulted with aboriginal Canadians.
“That is a very tainted picture in my eyes,” he said.
The meeting comes in the wake of national and even international interest in the plight of Canada’s aboriginal population following reports of Third World-style poverty at the northern Ontario community of Attawapiskat.
“The gathering provides the prime minister with an opportunity to demonstrate that he is a true Canadian” by making substantial commitments on education, health, governance and land claims, said Jody Wilson-Raybould, the AFN’s regional chief in B.C.
“The world is watching.”
Phillip cited the handful of violent confrontations involving aboriginal groups starting with the 1990 Oka crisis in Quebec, which included the shooting death of a Quebec police officer and the non-lethal showdown between Canadian soldiers and armed Mohawks.
Phillip said aboriginals from across Canada engaged during Oka in various demonstrations of solidarity across Canada, including a roadblock near Penticton, B.C., in which participants had a single “two-handed” cellphone.
“You needed two hands to hold it” due to its weight and size, Phillip explained.
He predicted a largely peaceful uprising along the lines of the U.S. Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, but through using social media.
“In today’s world that response will be more instantaneous.”
Wilson-Raybould said chiefs have a range of views — ranging from angry to optimistic — and she said she’s holding out hope the Harper-First Nations summit will lead to substantial progress.
She said Harper could take an important step by agreeing to meet at least once a year with chiefs to assess progress.
The B.C. chiefs are also asking the government to accelerate the stalled comprehensive treaty process, work with the B.C. government to improve resource revenue-sharing, agree that aboriginal “consent” is needed on “major industrial developments” — an apparent reference to the $5.5-billion Northern Gateway pipeline from the Alberta oilsands to the B.C. coast — and “revisit” the $5.1-billion Kelowna Accord for First Nations that was killed when Harper took office in 2006.
The federal government tried to set the stage for the discussions Monday by announcing 18 agreements with First Nations across Canada, including eight in B.C. and two in Alberta, that have signed agreements under the First Nations Land Management Act.
That legislation, enacted in 1999, allows reserves to opt out of land-related sections of the Indian Act to have greater control over their land and natural resources.
The announcements underscore the Harper government’s messaging that the best route out of aboriginal poverty is economic and resource development instead of social program spending.
But Stanley, the AFN’s Alberta chief, said First Nations on the Prairies have little interest moving away from the Indian Act.
“We’re not ready to go in that direction,” he said.
“The chiefs are saying, ‘What are we going to replace it with? We’ve already lost everything.’
“This is the reason we’re here, to protect” those rights, he said.
Alberta’s Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation and Tsuu T’ina First Nation both struck deals under the land management legislation, according to Monday’s announcement.
In B.C., the Haisla, Shuswap, St. Mary’s, Stz’uminus, Williams Lake, Aitchelitz, Skowkale and Yakweakwioose First Nations struck deals — the latter three under the umbrella of a single regime run by the Sto:lo Tribal Council.
Sto:lo Grand Chief Joe Hall said in a statement that te agreement means 10 of 11 Sto:lo First Nations are signatories, filling “geographical gaps” in Sto:lo territory and providing greater land code “group harmony.”
“This in turn will prove to be equally important with the neighbouring non-aboriginal local governments,” Hall said.
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National chief supports civil disobedience over Attawapiskat
CBC News
Posted: Dec 10, 2011
While tensions continue to grow between the federal government and the First Nations community of Attawapiskat, National Chief for the Assembly of First Nations Shawn Atleo says civil disobedience is one form of action that could be used to draw attention to the current crisis.
In an interview with CBC Radio's The House, National Chief Shawn Atleo tells host Evan Solomon that "remote-control decisions, unilaterally imposed decisions," like imposing a third-party manager on the community of Attawapiskat, are not the answer.
A number of chiefs have told Atleo "we need to use every tool that is available to us."
Atleo acknowledges that civil disobedience "certainly has been one of the tools" he has used in the past, specifically when trying to bring attention to the plight of his own community on the west coast of British Columbia.
"Attawapiskat is not the only one" under a third-party manager, said Atleo.
"Again this is about decisions made by remote control, by individuals who have no deep-vested interest in these communities — they're operating from cities elsewhere or Ottawa, for that matter."
Part of the challenge in this crisis is getting past the blame game, and according to Atleo there's only one of two ways to do that: "it's hard or harder."
"Are we going to work separately and have it harder, or are we going to get on with the hard work of working to reconcile our respective jurisdictions," said Atleo.
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Attawapiskat chief cool to offer to relocate residents
By Amy Chung and Derek Abma, Postmedia News
December 9, 2011
OTTAWA - The chief of a troubled northern Ontario reserve battling a housing crisis and abhorrent living conditions said her community may turn down an evacuation offer from the Harper government, according to media reports.
On Friday, Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence wrote a letter responding to Aboriginal Affairs Minister John Duncan's proposal to temporarily relocate reserve residents in substandard housing who want to leave.
Spence said she will consult with her community but thinks they will stay and wait it out.
Duncan also said 15 modular homes have been purchased by the federal government for the community and will be delivered once winter roads are functional, probably in January. Spence said the reserve needs at least 22.
As well, Duncan said the government had provided funding to renovate five homes on the reserve and is working with other agencies to provide such necessities as toilets, wood stoves and building materials.
"Our government has prioritized the urgent health and safety needs of the residents of Attawapiskat,'' Duncan said at a news conference in the House of Commons foyer. "We've been working around the clock with the community and Emergency Management Ontario to ensure the residents and especially the children of Attawapiskat have access to safe, warm shelter for the coming months.''
Duncan said some of the immediate solutions, until the homes can be delivered or other repairs made, include modifications to make the local sports complex or healing lodge livable on a temporary basis for some residents.
Duncan did not say specifically how much such measures would cost. Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird said in the Commons that repairs on the five homes would cost $500,000.
As well, Spence reiterated her objection to the federally appointed third-party manager to oversee the band's finances. That manager - Jacques Marion - was ordered off the reserve when he flew in last week.
Marion will be paid out of federal funding already earmarked for band administration, an official in Duncan's office said, adding the costs will not come from the emergency funding delivered to Attawapiskat. His fee is $1,300 per day.
Charlie Angus, the New Democrat MP for the Timmins-James Bay riding that includes Attawapiskat, called this move a ``punishment'' for reserve residents.
"This guy's been sent there to cut cheques and to cut off the funding,'' Angus said. "That's what happens. They cut off funding on anything that they consider unnecessary, which in a small band, is actually a lot of necessary funding.''
Liberal leader Bob Rae brought up an auditor general's report from 2003 that highlighted problems with assigning third-party managers to deal with issues on native reserves.
That report, from former auditor general Sheila Fraser said: "Third-party management is an extreme intervention, intended to be temporary. However, unless it is more transparent and focuses more on capacity development, the intervention may not resolve the underlying problems.''
That report also found, from consultations with First Nations leaders, that these communities would prefer more transparency from third-party managers and to have more say in who gets these jobs.
Rae's summary of that report was that "you don't get anywhere by simply imposing third-party solutions that have no buy-in from the band itself.''
"The problem is capacity,'' Rae added. "You improve capacity. You improve government. You improve housing. That's the thing you do and that's where this government has just not faced up to the issue.''
Duncan also said the government would be conducting an audit of the reserve's finances over the last five years. Angus said this is a measure the reserve's governing authorities have said they welcome.
The federal government says it has allocated $90 million to the reserve on James Bay since 2006.
Twitter.com/derekabma
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In Attawapiskat, deep-rooted problems won't disappear in an instant
Genesee Keevil
From Saturday's Globe and Mail
Dec. 09, 2011
“They hear about the diamonds,” said Maryanne Wheesk, a middle-aged grandmother in the remote James Bay community of Attawapiskat, “and they think we're rich.”
I sat down with Ms. Wheesk two years ago, long before Attawapiskat had declared a state of emergency, and long before a housing crisis transformed the mispronounced dot on a map to a mainstay of the national conversation.
The plight of the inhabitants here is a familiar one among isolated aboriginal communities. They lack access to clean drinking water. They lack adequate shelter. And the persistent questions about economic viability are lost in a haze of mutual recrimination with Ottawa: Complaints about mistreatment by the federal government are met with accusations of fiscal mismanagement and poor governance.
But there is one thing unique to Attawapiskat, something that had – for a time, at least – given residents reason to believe their story would be a different one.
Just upriver from the three-bedroom home that Ms. Wheesk shares with 17 of her family members, and 500 kilometres from the nearest road, lies a deposit of low-grade kimberlite. Although there are few diamonds per ton of ore, the ones that are there are of an incredibly high quality – so high, in fact, that when experts saw the first sampling, they assumed the raw product had already been sorted. It hadn't. An average diamond sells for $80 a carat; Attawapiskat's go for more than $400.
It's why De Beers decided to develop the property and create Ontario's first diamond mine, dubbed Victor. When it began operations in 2008, the South African mining giant estimated it would contribute $6.7-billion to the Ontario economy in its 12-year lifespan. Residents, meanwhile, predicted the nearby mine would bring jobs, training, and the kind of economic permanence that had always eluded them.
But as the past few months have shown, things haven't improved. Some argue the decline has just continued.
“It's been like this for so many years – and it keeps getting worse,” Chief Theresa Spence said on the eve of her visit to Ottawa this week. “We don't have enough finances, and we never did.”
Band co-manager Clayton Kennedy managed Attawapiskat's finances from 2001 through 2004, and was rehired in July, 2010.
In the five years he was not with the band, he said, things became “a financial nightmare.” He believes the first nation was in over its head.
“It wasn't so much people pocketing money, or flying to Bermuda,” he said. “It was more, too many trips to Timmins and too many workshops.” The band also hired too many staff, even at the risk of running a deficit, he said. This resulted in young, inexperienced workers “occupying positions, even when they were not capable of doing the job.” Attawapiskat has an unemployment rate of more than 60 per cent, and “there was a mentality to hire as many people as possible in order to get money on the table, so people could buy food and get off welfare.”
In January, Mr. Kennedy implemented a new remedial management plan, drastically changing the way business was conducted. Mr. Kennedy has residents paying for rent, water, sewer, garbage and electrical fees, something that was not well managed previously.
But the problems here are deep-rooted, and not easily overcome – particularly when it comes to infrastructure. Many young people, for instance, don't know what it's like to have a normal elementary school. For them, it's six grey portables beside an abandoned lot. Over two decades, more than 150,000 litres of diesel leaked into the substructure of the J.R. Nakogee elementary school without anyone noticing. Rosie Koostachin remembered the smell, a heady mix of burnt tar and gasoline. Now 38, she's anemic, gets migraines, has high blood pressure and consistently irregular pap tests.
When the school was demolished in 2009, Ms. Koostachin's house was covered in a fine layer of grey dust. “We were all sleepy, got headaches, started coughing and had watery eyes.”
De Beers arrived in Attawapiskat around the same time the village learned its school was contaminated. Promising to bring its Books in Homes campaign to the James Bay communities, and employing the motto “Education is Forever,” the company was an ally in the push for a new facility. The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs gave Attawapiskat the portables, promising a real school within the next two years. And De Beers again petitioned the minister for action in 2009, pledging support in the form of project management and work crews. But the village is still waiting.
Leaders in Attawapiskat firmly believe that the problems are fixable with more help from Ottawa. The federal government has countered that its disbursement – $90-million since 2006 – is fair, and has requested a forensic audit of the community's books.
Clara Tomagatik didn't mention the clear, hard gems discovered under her family's traditional hunting grounds. Instead, she talked about building wigwams out of pliable young alders for her family to smoke moose meat and dry beaver, martin and muskrat pelts. The wigwams were at a winter camp where Victor mine sits today. Every fall, she would head upriver with her brothers, sisters and her 86-year-old mother, Emelda, until De Beers put up “No Trespassing” signs. Now, the Tomagatik family is prohibited from hunting, trapping, or camping on their traditional lands. Community members can't visit the mine site without a criminal-record check and an escort.
Ms. Tomagatik struggled with English, continually breaking into Cree then catching herself and searching for words. She said De Beers officials met with her family three times, long before the company cut a deal with Attawapiskat. She claimed that the company offered her and her four siblings $10,000 a year while the mine was in operation and that she has the paperwork to prove it. For the first few years, the money materialized. Ms. Tomagatik used it to support her daughter, living down south in Timmins. But several years ago, the payments stopped.
Tom Ormsby, the company's director of corporate affairs, explained that the rules changed when De Beers signed a deal with Attawapiskat to develop the land. Instead of making payments to individual band members, the money goes to chief and council.
“We don't compensate individuals,” said Mr. Ormsby, who began working for De Beers after the meetings with the Tomagatiks took place. “We have no way of knowing people's traditional hunting grounds and things like that. And we don't designate what the money's for, whether it's for the Tomagatiks or anybody. That's for the chief and council to decide.”
Before cutting a deal with Attawapiskat, he said, De Beers made sure it supplied the community with enough money to hire its own advisers. The impact-benefit agreement – which earned Mining Magazine's “Mine of the Year Award” in 2009 – took more than three years to negotiate and covers everything from De Beers' right to override Attawapiskat land claims to what's served at Victor's cafeteria.
“We were not going to sit at the table with our negotiators and the community not have the opportunity to sit at the table with people of equal experience and background,” Mr. Ormsby said. “We have 120 years of diamond-mining experience, and it's unfair to think any community, at the beginning, would have a full and broad grasp of everything we do.”
The mining company gives Attawapiskat about $2-million a year for use of its traditional land. De Beers also says it hires locally and provides various training programs.
Mr. Ormsby noted the mine has about 500 permanent full-time employees, roughly 100 of whom are from Attawapiskat. He also said close to half the workers self-identify as aboriginal.
“Since the start of construction, community-owned or jointly owned businesses have been awarded over $325-million, including $51-million this year alone,” he said in an e-mail last week. “The community owns or jointly owns all the permanent contracts in the Victor mine.”
But there are limits to what these jobs and programs can do in a remote area with chronic unemployment and no other industry.
After graduating from Vezina Secondary School in 2009, Christine Kataquapit's daughter planned on continuing her education by taking courses offered by the mine. Her mom was De Beers's newly appointed first-nation liaison. But there were no courses available, except basic first aid. Ms. Kataquapit's daughter also applied to work at Victor, but after four months without a response, she went south. “She's 19, she can't find a job here,” Ms. Kataquapit said.
De Beers's Attawapiskat office is in an ATCO trailer between the church and the bootlegger's, where a mickey of vodka sells for $130. (The bootlegger's house is known locally as “the palace,” and with its new siding and thermal windows, it's easily one of the nicest spots in town.)
Out of the ATCO trailer, De Beers has been laying the groundwork for expansion. The Victor kimberlite is one of at least 16 diamond-bearing pipes in the Attawapiskat area. Over the past year, the company has been in contact with the Tomagatiks again. This time, De Beers is negotiating with Clara's younger brother, John Tomagatik. “They want to explore in another spot on our land,” Mr. Tomagtik said. “But we don't want to let them explore until we sign a new [impact-benefit agreement].”
The 198-page agreement is a dense read – so dense, in fact, that it has overwhelmed the community's small, rundown band office. There are a dizzying array of commitments: from environmental management committees and joint management committees to employee advisory committees, wildlife management plans, mining monitors and human-resources inventories.
Theresa Hall, who was IBA co-ordinator and later became chief for a term, confessed she hadn't even heard of some of the committees and positions laid out in the document. She wasn't aware, for instance, that her first nation could request government valuation reports showing the mine's production values, access laid out in section 10.11.1. She hadn't seen De Beers's annual environmental reports, and she admitted the IBA co-ordinator position had been empty for years. The agreement even gave the community an opportunity to find a native name for Victor, but chief and council missed the deadline. Keeping up with the IBA is too much, Ms. Hall said. “We can sign the best agreement in the world, but if we don't have the people with the educational requirements, then it's false promises.”
Village activist Greg Shisheesh has been lobbying for a revised IBA for several years. He has collected more than 600 signatures asking De Beers to reopen its agreement with Attawapiskat. His petition has not been answered. “It's not that we don't want De Beers on our land,” he said. “We just want to make sure they're doing their part.” After a pause, he added: “It breaks down at our level. … We don't understand who we're dealing with – we're dealing with a giant that's dealt with aboriginal people all over the world. And our staff is not educated, so we're not able to catch up.”
Mr. Shisheesh, however, acknowledged there have been governance issues in Attawapiskat. And he welcomes the fact that Ottawa recently sent in a third-party manager to oversee the community's operations – a deeply divisive move that has angered many.
“There's no doubt we're in a mess financially,” he said. “We lack training and we lack education. But regardless, we need help cleaning up the financial situation.”
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Attawapiskat requires answers not more handouts
By Peter Worthington, QMI Agency
Wednesday, December 07, 2011
TORONTO - For most of us, it’s hard to justify Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence’s chutzpah in banning a government-appointed manager from entering the James Bay community to assess what went wrong.
It’s even harder to equate over $90 million of taxpayers’ money spent on the community of 1,800 since 1996, with the housing crisis and the indignity of emergency relief supplies being flown it to curb the spreading misery.
Chief Spence seems adamant that Jacques Marion not set foot on the reserve. As the designated “third-party manager” of Attawapiskat’s spending, he’ll have to do it from outside the reserve, with no help from inside.
Clearly, that’s an arrangement that can’t work.
Some of the above impressions need clarifying: The record of third-party managers is not encouraging, and often they’re accused of halting everything and being dictatorial. Hence Chief Spence’s attitude.
And the $90 million goes to the whole Northern region, with only $16 million earmarked for buildings in Attawapiskat – bad, but not as outrageous as it first seems.
The immediate thought is that Chief Spence and the band council might be looting the till, as has happened in other reserves. Not so. It seems Chief Spence’s salary is a modest $70,000, with a decent audit conducted on the money that comes in.
So the wretched housing conditions in Attawapiskat seem not to be linked with the sort of corruption that is endemic throughout the system. Just shoddy management.
So far, Aboriginal Affairs Minister John Duncan has been restrained and reasonable. He’d like to avoid trouble. As usual.
Chief Spence accuses the Mr. Marion of being “a modern-day Indian agent,” and says the Harper government is trying to blame the victim for the housing crisis.
What the PM, Minister Duncan, Mr. Marion, and the Canadian public want to know, is how people can be living in shacks and tents when $90 million was spent on the region.
Chief Spence says it was $94 million, of which 6.5% was designated for housing, and the rest “to support the greater economy of Northern Ontario . . . goods, materials, services, construction, legal advice and auditing.” Hmm. Still seems a lot.
What seems obvious is that Chief Spence and the band council are incapable of running their community the way it should be run – even though she acknowledges that on a per capita basis, everyone in Attawapiskat gets $10,000 a year from the government.
If any non-aboriginal community were run the way Attawapiskat was run, there’d be a revolt among residents -- and the feds would long ago have cut off funding.
The “transparency and accountability” in Aboriginal funding, promised by federal legislation, is not apparent in Attawaspiskat. Or, arguably, in other First Nation communities -- 20% of which require drinking water to be boiled.
Chief Spence wants no outside interference – just more money and no questions asked, or controls demanded.
Her answer to wretched housing is more government involvement – like an additional $2.5 million for housing. Does it not occur to her that if housing is so bad – and apparently it is – she and the band council have a responsibility to mobilize the community and help themselves?
Chief Spence sees a nearby diamond mine as contributing to problems. She told the CBC: “While they reap the riches, my people shiver in cold shacks and are becoming increasingly ill, while precious diamonds from my land grace the fingers of Hollywood celebrities and the mace of the Ontario Legislature.” More handouts wanted.
No suggestion of personal responsibility or initiative, or fending for oneself.
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Attawapiskat leaders want UN to intervene
Heather Scoffield, The Canadian Press
Dec 6, 2011
A spokeswoman for Aboriginal Affairs Minister John Duncan, right, says the government is committed to working with Attawapiskat chief Theresa Spence and band council.
OTTAWA—Leaders in Attawapiskat have asked the United Nations to intervene in their crisis, saying the move would force Prime Minister Stephen Harper to explain why he is not living up to his international obligations to respect aboriginal people.
“We have a right to go abroad to international people to say, ‘Look, this is what’s happening in Canada,’ ” Grand Chief Stan Louttit said after chiefs from across the country passed a resolution to ask the UN for a special rapporteur.
The housing crisis in Attawapiskat — where families live in uninsulated shacks as winter sets in — has turned into a political crisis that pits First Nations chiefs against the federal government.
Some of the chiefs took to the streets of Ottawa on Tuesday during a break in their annual meetings. They’re furious the federal government responded to Attawapiskat’s declaration of emergency by ordering yet another audit, and removing the band’s power over its finances.
“There seems to be an impasse here,” Louttit said.
But the band’s chief, Theresa Spence, says she is trying to find a way out of the escalating conflict.
Her band members ordered a government-appointed third-party manager to leave the reserve Monday, mainly because he had given no notice and did not have a plan to present, Spence said.
But she said she is working on her own plan to present to the government, and wants to discuss with her band council how they could work with the third-party manager in future.
“We’re hoping things will work out,” she said.
The decision to impose third-party management has nothing to do with resolving the short-term housing crisis on her reserve, she said, and will only make matters worse. She says she is bracing for funding cuts and delays, as the government appointee cracks down and takes control.
“It’s not right, that picture,” said Louttit. He acknowledged the band had audit problems in the past, but has made improvements.
Neither he nor Spence are opposed to the government asking for another audit.
But the measures by the federal government will do nothing to alleviate unhealthy living conditions that currently plague the community, they said.
In a unanimous resolution, First Nations chiefs asked the UN to appoint a special rapporteur to determine whether Ottawa is meeting its obligations under Canadian law and international treaties.
“We must go together and tell the government: this is our land, this is our life,” Attawapiskat chief Theresa Spence told dozens of fellow leaders at the Assembly of First Nations’ annual meeting.
“We need to say ‘enough is enough.’ Respect our treaty and follow our treaty, as we did.”
The resolution was a last-minute addition to the agenda at the meeting, where anger and disbelief run thick over the government’s handling of the housing crisis in Attawapiskat.
It also demands that the federal and provincial governments respond quickly to communities lacking basic needs.
And it instructs the Aboriginal Affairs minister to stop imposing measures and instead work with chiefs and their councils.
A spokeswoman for Aboriginal Affairs Minister John Duncan says the government is committed to working with the chief and council to find ways to give the people warm and dry places to sleep.
But chief after chief accused the minister of being disingenuous, saying his decision to respond to Attawapiskat’s cry for help by removing the band’s power over its finances shows a lack of respect and understanding.
“That’s not going to work,” said Grand Chief Stan Beardy of the Nishnawbe Aski Nation.
He said placing a third-party financial manager in charge of Attawapiskat is a throwback to the colonial era. It comes as First Nations leaders and Harper have agreed to talk about defining a new relationship that would eventually lead to self-government.
“This is the Indian agent being imposed on us,” Beardy said in an interview.
Duncan says Ottawa still holds decision-making power over the band’s money even though the third-party manager was kicked out.
“His message is, ‘if you make noise, we’re going to send in a third-party manager to take control’,” Spence said. “They impose the Indian Act and take control of our lives.”
Key First Nations chiefs are planning a summit with Harper at the end of January, in part to discuss how to move beyond that act, which both sides consider antiquated.
Although some chiefs say Harper has shown no goodwill in recent days, National Chief Shawn Atleo said the public attention and the outpouring of donations focused on the problems in Attawapiskat give First Nations a big boost.
“It’s our time,” he told the chiefs. “By this, we mean that the pain and the suffering ends right here, right now, in this generation.
“Together we can close the chapter of a very dark period of our history and turn the page to write a new chapter filled with hope and promise for our children and their children to come.”
Aides passed an open blanket around to collect funds for Attawapiskat, and raised almost $6,000 in an hour.
Spence said she was grateful for the donations and for the help of the Red Cross, but it’s a pittance compared with what her community needs for housing, schooling and health care.
“Winter is here,” she said. “And we’ve been living like this for more than three years. We have to stop it.”
In Attawapiskat, five families are living in uninsulated wood-frame tents with no plumbing and dozens of families are crammed together in temporary shelters. Tuesday daytime temperatures were reported at -14C, with a forecast of -12C overnight.
The reserve is only one of dozens experiencing severe housing shortages — prompting many chiefs to call for better funding arrangements and a full discussion with Ottawa on how to fix the persistent problem.
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Lives at risk on Ontarios Attawapiskat reserve chief says
Governments blamed for ignoring 'crisis'
By Linda Nguyen
Postmedia News
November 19, 2011
A state of emergency declared last month over "Third-World" living conditions in a remote northern Ontario reserve has fallen on deaf ears, the chief of Attawapiskat said Friday.
Chief Theresa Spence says lives are being put at risk as the provincial and federal governments continue to ignore the cries of help from the 2,000 residents, many of whom are children and elders.
"It's really a crisis we're facing in our community," she said, flanked by NDP MP Charlie Angus and Ontario NDP legislative member Gilles Bisson at a news conference in Toronto. "It's time for the government to accept and understand what is going on, and deal with it. Because right now, nobody is stepping in."
For at least the past two years, many residents - including in some cases, multiple generations of one family - in the community have been living in makeshift tents and shacks without heat, electricity and indoor plumbing.
At least 90 people have resorted to living in two construction workers' portables equipped with only two washrooms and four showers to use among them.
Others are using buckets as washroom facilities and sleep in fear of fire because of wood-burning stoves in their homes, the chief said.
The families have been living in these conditions because they had to move out of deteriorating 40-year-old homes and also to accommodate a rapidly growing population.
The province has acknowledged the state of emergency declared on Oct. 28, but has not put any plans in place to renovate or build more housing, or as a last resort, to temporarily evacuate residents to safer accommodations.
A spokeswoman with the provincial Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services, which oversees Emergency Management Ontario, says it's still in discussion with federal officials to co-ordinate a response. No timeline could be given on when action would be taken.
Emergency Management Ontario is responsible for managing rescue efforts for situations ranging from floods to forest fires. It rarely is involved in housing issues, like the one in Attawapiskat.
According to Spence, the longer the government sits and passes the buck, the worse the situation will get as residents become more vulnerable to infectious diseases due to the substandard living conditions.
"This is not a safe environment right now and winter is coming," she said.
Angus, MP for Timmins-James Bay, says even a recent infusion of $500,000 from the federal government to address some of these problems is not enough when one house for one family can cost up to $200,000.
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Hundreds homeless in Attawapiskat
MP says, ‘people will die if nothing is done’
By Ryan Lux, The Daily Press
09 November 2011
The region's top two politicians paid a visit to Attawapiskat this week in response to the community's declaration that its housing situation is in a state of emergency.
What they found was a community that has reached its breaking point.
They described a bulging population living in mold-infested, under-serviced and overcrowded housing that could be likened to the Third World if it weren't for the fact the sheds and tents people live in have to keep out frigid -40 C temperatures.
MP Charlie Angus (NDP — Timmins-James Bay)
"There are literally hundreds of homeless people," said MP Charlie Angus (NDP — Timmins-James Bay). "We are very concerned that people will die if nothing is done."
Angus said he saw people living in uninsulated tents, wood sheds and homes infested with black mould. Many of the homes he and his provincial counterpart, MPP Gilles Bisson (NDP — Timmins-James Bay), visited lacked plumbing forcing people to use buckets. Where there was plumbing, the water was so corrosive it was rotting the pipes.
"We saw one intersection where there were 15 people having to dump their toilet waste into the ditches so I'm certainly concerned about the health risks to children from infectious diseases."
Overcrowding puts further pressure on the already inadequate infrastructure.
Bisson said he found upwards of 20 people living in three- and four-bedroom homes, where each bedroom housed entire large families.
More than 90 people live in a series of work trailers donated to the community by De Beers two years ago in response to a sewage overflow that rendered many of the community's houses unliveable.
While the trailers were intended as a short term stop-gap measure, until the homes could be remediated or replaced, they have become permanent homeless shelters.
The 90 people who live in the trailers share four stoves and six washrooms.
Angus recalled one mother who said her young son refers to a piece of couch surrounded by other people's mattresses as his room.
Bisson said some homes are heated exclusively by halved 45-gallon drums used as wood stoves.
It's not as though Bisson and Angus have never been to Attawapiskat in their respective 21 and seven years in power. However, this time Bisson said he was offered a far more intimate perspective of the crisis.
"When I saw those shelters I thought they were sweat lodges and sheds. I never asked the question," said Bisson.
"I never realized people were living in them."
He credited his ignorance of the situation on the ground to the community's stoic nature.
"When I asked them if they were mad, they said it's not their way," Bisson said.
Angus said part of the problem is that inadequate housing has been normalized by decades of government neglect and Attawapiskat's culture of patience and making the best of limited resources.
Given their seemingly infinite patience for conditions to improve, Angus said the very fact a state of emergency has been declared speaks volumes about how bad things have become.
"First Nations people are very patient people so it takes a lot for them to invite us there to see that."
While the crisis has been brewing for a long time, pairing a rapidly growing population with insufficient construction and infrastructure development, Angus said the crisis really came to a head under Chuck Strahl who headed the Ministry of Indian and Northern Affairs between 2006 and 2007.
"Minister Strahl had a very combative attitude towards and basically ignored the problem," said Angus. "We've at least had 100 people homeless there for some time."
He also laid some blame on the ministry's bureaucracy, which he described as intransigent to Attawapiskat's misery.
"They've got tough hearts that are immune to it. They've seen a lot of misery," Angus said.
The Ministry has responded to Attawapiskat's plea for help by promising to retrofit 15 homes that were originally abandoned by people who considered tents and sheds as the safer option.
"Are we just moving them from the fire to the frying pan?" said Bisson.
While the retrofitted houses may be the best option to ensure some residents won't spend a harsh winter living in tents and sheds, Angus said both the federal and provincial governments need to craft a long-term housing strategy accompanied by predictable and stable funding to execute it.
The governments' current response still won't be able to bring the 15 homes up to adequate standards people in Southern Ontario would find acceptable.
"If these conditions were faced by tenants anywhere in Southern Ontario there would be charges laid against the landlord, who in this case is the federal government ," said Angus.
"I'm glad to see the ministry at the table but there's a larger crisis being ignored."
That problem is not the legacy of colonialism, Angus said, but it's continued practice in northern First Nation communities.
"These people are handcuffed to a colonial system. The federal government treats these communities as children of the state."
Angus and Bisson agree that the only way to reach a sustainable solution is to start a conversation about the Indian Act.
"They're living under an administration that is as colonial as anything that happened in Africa in the 19th century," said Angus.
Bisson argued the act needs to be overhauled to allow First Nations to own their homes as private property, something the legislation currently prohibits.
Not being able to own property means First Nations residents can't mortgage their homes to access capital to start businesses and makes it impossible for local governments to levy taxes to pay for infrastructure upgrades.
Neither men said they're optimistic about real long-term change unless the wider public pressures government and the INAC bureaucracy.
"The federal government knows most people will never visit Attawapiskat, no one will ever see it. I don't think most people know how bad it is but if the average citizen sees it, they'll become an advocate in two minutes.," Bisson said.
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Housing crisis plagues Northern Ontario reserve
Attawapiskat First Nation waiting on government funding to renovate 15 houses
CBC News
Posted: Nov 9, 2011
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/sudbury/story/2011/11/09/sby-attawapiskat-housing-2.html
The Attawapiskat First Nation in northeastern Ontario says its housing shortage has turned into a crisis.
In the isolated James Bay community of Attawapiskat, houses are so overcrowded that some families are living in shacks and tent frames. As the temperature drops, the community is calling for help.
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Lisa Marie Linklater is bracing for another winter in a tent frame.
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"There's six of us — four of my kids, me and my husband,” she said. “We have no washroom, no running water. It's hard, especially in winter times."
There's a wood stove and a couple of mattresses on the plywood floor. To get electricity, they run extension cords from the house next door.
Her mother, Stella Kioke Koostachin, is so frustrated with the situation, it brings tears to her eyes.
She has been writing to First Nations leaders and Timmins-James Bay politicians for help.
"They really need to step up and do something about it,” she said. “I mean, people need to realize how we're living up here."
She said she doesn't want to see her grandchildren spend a third winter in a tent frame.
[Left: Lisa Marie Linklater and Attawapiskat First Nation Chief Theresa Spence said they are not looking forward to living in tent frames like this one, for a third winter in a row. (Allison Dempster/CBC)]
Chief Theresa Spence said about half of the houses need major renovations or are condemned.
About 1,800 people live in Attawapiskat. There are 303 houses on the reserve. That's roughly six people to a house.
Chief Theresa Spence said about half of the houses need major renovations or are condemned.
The problems include sewage leaks, leaky rooves, and mold.
But people still live in the houses — or next to them — in shacks.
Multi-million dollar proposition
"When you're living in a small room with kids, it [has a] social impact,” she said.
“You don't have your own kitchen, your own fridge, you have to share with everybody, you have to wait for your shower."
Spence figures the community needs 200 houses, which is a multi-million dollar proposition.
For now, she's asked the federal Department of Aboriginal Affairs for $400,000 to renovate 15 houses.
There has been no word from the government on whether it will grant the funding.
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Also See:
Canada - First Nations are Victims of the Government! (Part 1)
27 July 2007
http://arcticcompass.blogspot.com/2007/07/reservation.html
and
Conflict Between the Canadian Government and the First Nations People
12 January 2010
http://arcticcompass.blogspot.com/2010/01/conflict-between-canadian-government.html
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