Wednesday, February 28, 2018

What's In The Dead Sea Scrolls?


Secrets That You Were Never Meant to See From The Dead Sea Scrolls
Published on Dec 23, 2017
Also See:

Banned From The Bible - The Stories That Were Deleted From Biblical History
Published on Sep 25, 2016
One of the Last Dead Sea Scrolls Deciphered
The Hebrew scroll provides insight into ancient Judean celebrations.
By Elaina Zachos
Published January 23, 2018
A piece of parchment rolled up in a jug that was being processed for writing, found in a cave on the cliffs west of Qumran by Hebrew University archeaologists.
Archaeologists may be one step closer to decoding the mystery of the famous Dead Sea Scrolls.
Researchers from the University of Haifa in Israel have restored and deciphered one of the last untranslated Qumran Scrolls. The collection, which consists of 900 ancient Jewish manuscripts, has been shrouded in controversy since it was unearthed more than 70 years ago. (Read: "Dead Sea Scrolls Mystery Solved?")
The university's Eshbal Ratson and Jonathan Ben-Dov spent one year reassembling the 60 fragments that make up the scroll. Deciphered from a band of coded text on parchment, the find provides insight into the community of people who wrote it and the 364-day calendar they would have used.
"Because this number can be divided into four and seven, special occasions always fall on the same day," Ratson and Ben-Dov say in a press release. "The Qumran calendar is unchanging."
The scroll names celebrations that indicate shifts in seasons as "Tekufah," which is Hebrew for "period." These celebrations have been known from other texts but have not been officially named until now. (Watch: "Decoding the Dead Sea Scrolls")
It also details two religious events known from another Dead Sea Scroll. The festivals, for New Wine and for New Oil, would have been tacked onto the Jewish harvest festival Shavuot 100 and 150 days after the first Sabbath of Passover, respectively.
This scroll also gives information about its authors, who would have roamed the region's desert between the second century BC and second century AD. Dates for the aforementioned celebrations appear to have been scribbled in the margins between columns of text, giving the impression that they were added to the scroll by one person after it was authored by another.
As religious documents, a wave of controversy surrounds the Dead Sea Scrolls. They were written between the second century BC and the second century AD, but their exact authors are highly contested. Scholars agree, however, that the documents—which consist of explanatory, wisdom, apocalyptic, and calendrical texts, in addition to hymns and prayers—were written by Judean desert dwellers. (Read: "New Dead Sea Scroll Find May Help Detect Forgeries")
About 230 "Biblical" manuscripts make up the Scrolls, which refer to practices found in the Hebrew Bible. Other "non-Biblical" documents relate to biblical texts, describing religious beliefs and community practices rather than explicit stories mentioned in the Bible.
The scrolls are mostly written in Hebrew and code, although Aramaic and Greek scrolls have also been found. Most are scribed on parchment, but some are written on papyrus, and one has been found on copper. Scanning efforts have been made to preserve the ancient texts. (See: "Dead Sea Scrolls Being Digitized for Web")

Now, only one more known scroll remains untranslated.

1.The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in eleven caves along the northwest shore of the Dead Sea between the years 1947 and 1956. The area is 13 miles east of Jerusalem and is 1300 feet below sea level. The mostly fragmented texts, are numbered according to the cave that they came out of. They have been called the greatest manuscript discovery of modern times. See a Dead Sea Scroll Jar.

Cave 12. Only Caves 1 and 11 have produced relatively intact manuscripts. Discovered in 1952, Cave 4 produced the largest find. About 15,000 fragments from more than 500 manuscripts were found.
3. In all, scholars have identified the remains of about 825 to 870 separate scrolls.

4. The Scrolls can be divided into two categories—biblical and non-biblical. Fragments of every book of the Hebrew canon (Old Testament) have been discovered except for the book of Esther.

5. There are now identified among the scrolls, 19 copies of the Book of Isaiah, 25 copies of Deuteronomy and 30 copies of the Psalms .

6. Prophecies by Ezekiel, Jeremiah and Daniel not found in the Bible are written in the Scrolls.

7. The Isaiah Scroll, found relatively intact, is 1000 years older than any previously known copy of Isaiah. In fact, the scrolls are the oldest group of Old Testament manuscripts ever found.

8. In the Scrolls are found never before seen psalms attributed to King David and Joshua.

Torah9. There are nonbiblical writings along the order of commentaries on the OT, paraphrases that expand on the Law, rule books of the community, war conduct, thanksgiving psalms, hymnic compositions, benedictions, liturgical texts, and sapiential (wisdom) writings.

10. The Scrolls are for the most part, written in Hebrew, but there are many written in Aramaic. Aramaic was the common language of the Jews of Palestine for the last two centuries B.C. and of the first two centuries A.D. The discovery of the Scrolls has greatly enhanced our knowledge of these two languages. In addition, there are a few texts written in Greek.

11. The Scrolls appear to be the library of a Jewish sect. The library was hidden away in caves around the outbreak of the First Jewish Revolt (A.D. 66-70) as the Roman army advanced against the rebel Jews.

12. Near the caves are the ancient ruins of Qumran. They were excavated in the early 1950's and appear to be connected with the scrolls.

13. The Dead Sea Scrolls were most likely written by the Essenes during the period from about 200 B.C. to 68 C.E./A.D. The Essenes are mentioned by Josephus and in a few other sources, but not in the New testament. The Essenes were a strict Torah observant, Messianic, apocalyptic, baptist, wilderness, new covenant Jewish sect. They were led by a priest they called the "Teacher of Righteousness," who was opposed and possibly killed by the establishment priesthood in Jerusalem.

14. The enemies of the Qumran community were called the "Sons of Darkness"; they called themselves the "Sons of Light," "the poor," and members of "the Way." They thought of themselves as "the holy ones," who lived in "the house of holiness," because "the Holy Spirit" dwelt with them.

15. The last words of Joseph, Judah, Levi, Naphtali, and Amram (the father of Moses) are written down in the Scrolls.

Cave 416. One of the most curious scrolls is the Copper Scroll. Discovered in Cave 3, this scroll records a list of 64 underground hiding places throughout the land of Israel. The deposits are to contain certain amounts of gold, silver, aromatics, and manuscripts. These are believed to be treasures from the Temple at Jerusalem, that were hidden away for safekeeping.

17. The Temple Scroll, found in Cave 11, is the longest scroll. Its present total length is 26.7 feet (8.148 meters). The overall length of the scroll must have been over 28 feet (8.75m).

18. The scrolls contain previously unknown stories about biblical figures such as Enoch, Abraham, and Noah. The story of Abraham includes an explanation why God asked Abraham to sacrifice his only son Isaac.

19. The scrolls are most commonly made of animal skins, but also papyrus and one of copper. They are written with a carbon-based ink, from right to left, using no punctuation except for an occasional paragraph indentation. In fact, in some cases, there are not even spaces between the words.

20. The Scrolls have revolutionized textual criticism of the Old Testament. Interestingly, now with manuscripts predating the medieval period, we find these texts in substantial agreement with the Masoretic text as well as widely variant forms.

Section of the Psalms Scroll21. Some of the Dead Sea Scrolls actually appeared for sale on June 1, 1954 in the Wall Street Journal. The advertisement read — "The Four Dead Sea Scrolls: Biblical manuscripts dating back to at least 200 BC are for sale. This would be an ideal gift to an educational or religious institution by an individual or group. Box F206."

22. Although the Qumran community existed during the time of the ministry of Jesus, none of the Scrolls refer to Him, nor do they mention any of His follower's described in the New Testament.

23. The major intact texts, from Caves 1 & 11, were published by the late fifties and are now housed in the Shrine of the Book museum in Jerusalem.

24. Since the late fifties, about 40% of the Scrolls, mostly fragments from Cave 4, remained unpublished and were unaccessible. It wasn't until 1991, 44 years after the discovery of the first Scroll, after the pressure for publication mounted, that general access was made available to photographs of the Scrolls. In November of 1991 the photos were published by the Biblical Archaeological Society in a nonofficial edition; a computer reconstruction, based on a concordance, was announced; the Huntington Library pledged to open their microfilm files of all the scroll photographs.

25. The Dead Sea Scrolls enhance our knowledge of both Judaism and Christianity. They represent a non-rabbinic form of Judaism and provide a wealth of comparative material for New Testament scholars, including many important parallels to the Jesus movement. They show Christianity to be rooted in Judaism and have been called the evolutionary link between the two.

Monday, February 26, 2018

Was Jackie Kennedy Implicated in the Assassination of JFK?

CIA's Jackie Kennedy Flirted with LBJ After Assassination
Partial Source- Jane Bond by Patrick Scrivener
From "Buddy Silver" 
(Excerpts by
February 19, 2018
Listen to Jackie Kennedy flirt with the man she 
believed killed her husband, just months after the assassination. It lends credibility to the little-known claim, that Jackie Kennedy was a CIA agent.
"On June 21, 1942, [Jackie's mother] Janet married Hugh Auchincloss-a close friend of the Rockefellers, Morgans, and the Dulles Brothers. That meant that Auchincloss was now the stepfather of Jacqueline and Caroline Lee Bouvier. It was Auchincloss who recommended Jackie O for the position of the first female spy in the newly created CIA."
"Jackie was the most mercenary person I've ever met. She thinks, talks, and dreams of money, nothing but money. The joke is I would have given her fifty times what I gave her for the pleasure of never having to see her again. What amazes me is that she survives while everyone around her drops. She's dangerous, she's deadly." Christina Onassis (Wright, All the Pain That Money Can Buy, p. 210).
[Disclaimer- I realize this report is far from complete but it certainly opens new doors for investigation.}
Jackie and Lyndon Johnson were in collusion. They had something in common: they had both been pushed out of the loop of John F. Kennedy's personal life. Perhaps their bitterness caused them to come to an agreement to aid each other in removing the source. LBJ was aware that Republicans wanted to look into his possible bribe-taking, and Jackie was undoubtedly aware that her husband's tryst with a possible communist spy, Ellen Rometsch. (As well as his secret marriage to Durie Malcolm) was about to become public knowledge.
Tape-recorded phone calls between LBJ and Jackie 
from shortly after the assassination reveal an over-familiarity on LBJ's part that could possibly stem from his knowledge of her role on that fateful day in Dallas. It sounds like he was using it for all it was worth to coerce Jackie into a more intimate relationship with him. Jackie reportedly did not know she was being recorded but seems to take care in choosing her responses, perhaps due to CIA training and political savvy.
LBJ: Listen, sweetie. Now, first thing you've got to learn-you've got some things to learn, and one of them is that you don't bother me. You give me strength.
JBK: But I wasn't going to send you in one more letter. I was so scared you'd answer.
LBJ: Don't send me anything, don't send me anything! You just come on over and put your arm around me. That's all you do. When you haven't got anything else to do, let's take a walk. Let's walk around the backyard and just let me tell you how much you mean to all of us and how we can carry on if you give us a little strength!
JBK: But you know what I wanted to say to you about that letter? I know how rare a letter is in a President's handwriting. Do you know that I've got more in your handwriting than I do in Jack's now?
LBJ: Well-
JBK: And for you to write it at this time, and then to send me that thing today of, you know, your Cape announcement and everything-
LBJ: I want you to just know this, that I told my mama a long time ago when everybody else gave up about my election in '48-
JBK: Yes?
LBJ: My mother and my wife and my sisters and you females got a lot of courage that we men don't have. And so we have to rely on you and depend on you, and you've got something to do. You've got the President relying on you. And this is not the first one you've had! So there're not many women, you know, running around with a good many Presidents. So you just bear that in mind. You've got the biggest job of your life!
JBK: [laughs] "She ran around with two Presidents." That's what they'll say about me!
LBJ: Darling, you know what I said to the Congress-I'd give anything in the world if I wasn't here today. [laughs]
JBK: Well, listen, oh, it's going to be funny because the rooms are all so big. You'll all get lost, but anyway-
LBJ: You going to come back and see me?
JBK: [chuckles]
LBJ: Hmm?
JBK: Someday I will.
LBJ: Some day?
JBK: But anyway, take a big sleeping pill.
LBJ: Aren't you going to bring- You know what they do with me, they just keep my, they're just like taking a hypo, they just stimulate me and I just get every idea out of every head in my life comes back and I start thinking new things and new roads to conquer.
JBK: Yeah? Great.
LBJ: So I can't. Sleeping pill won't put me to sleep. It just wakes me up.
JBK: Oh.
LBJ: But if I know that you are going to come back to see me some morning when you are bringing your-
JBK: I will.
LBJ: -kid to school, and first time you do, please come and walk and let me walk down to the seesaw with you like old times.
JBK: I will, Mr. President.
LBJ: Okay. Give Caroline and John-John a hug for me.
JBK: I will.
LBJ: Tell them I'd like to be their daddy!
JBK: I will.
LBJ: Well, I've got to see you before long. I've got to see you.
JBK: Well, any time you say is great.
LBJ: All right.
JBK: Thanks.
LBJ: I'll call you sometime and come by.
JBK: Okay.
Jacqueline Bouvier was a C.I.A. agent assigned to infiltrate the Kennedy clan as they moved up in political circles. Here's an excerpt from an online biography of Jackie (among others) that cites this fact. "Jackie ... enrolled in George Washington University in Washington, DC, graduating in 1951. She took a job at the CIA and in January of 1952 went to work at a Washington newspaper, where she was a photographer. During an assignment, she met U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy. They were married on September 12, 1953. Their first child, who lived, was Caroline Kennedy, born November 27, 1957." 
The entire biography can be read here. Jackie may have been merely following the orders of her superiors to hit their target.
Jackie's and her mother's long association with George DeMorenschildt, a known CIA asset, closest friend of Lee Harvey Oswald, acquaintance of George H.W. Bush, LBJ, Abraham Zapruder (!) and others leads me to wonder if he was, perhaps, Jackie's (and maybe her mother's) "handler," as well as Lee Harvey Oswald's!
Here's an excerpt from a site dealing with a publication called, "Timeline Chart," discussed on this Education Forum: "I first started researching the 26 volumes of the Warren Commission for clues, when I came across George De Mohrenschildt. I thought it was strange that a man who visited Jacqueline Kennedy's mother on a regular basis would also befriend the alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald. In the first several years of my research, I even had a nightmare that Jackie Kennedy had been involved in the assassination. I began to look at this or the possibility that her mother Mrs. Hugh D. Auchincloss was involved. But I concluded, that no one in their right mind would have placed themselves or their daughter in an open convertible with a possibility of being shot, for Jackie sat three feet away from JFK on that fateful November 22, 1963.
De Mohrenschildt testified that before Oswald was even born, he visited with Jackie and her mother in 1938 on a daily basis at Easthampton, New York. You may, like myself, find this hard to digest." ...
 (Jackie's mom with Alan Dulles)
Jackie's mother, Janet Norton Lee Bouvier Auchincloss, was of "fake Jewish" ancestry. The original name of her father was "Levy" but the name was changed to "Lee" when his parents emigrated to the U.S. [She was connected to the CIA and knew both George De Mohrenschildt and Allan Dulles.]
Because of his drinking, womanizing, and his failure to keep his hands off his daughters, Janet divorced Jack [Bpuvier, Jackie's father] in 1940. Jack was irresistible to females who often mistook him for Clark Gable.
After his divorce from Janet, Jack bought an apartment in Manhattan and Jackie spent the weekends with him while she attended Vassar College.
In June 1951, Jackie O and her younger sister Caroline Lee were sent to Europe on a "vacation."
In reality, Alan Dulles wanted to overthrow the legitimate French government and replace it with a military dictatorship. Overthrowing constitutional governments is the raison d'être for the existence of the CIA. Jane's spying cover was "reporter" for Vogue magazine.
Vincent Jules Auriol was the first President of the French Fourth Republic.
A CIA hit team was already in France planning to overthrow and replace him with a military dictatorship.
Jackie O and her sister were part of that team.
Thanks to the Directorate-General for External Security, and the Directorate-General for Internal Security, the plot was foiled. France remained a Republic, with an independent foreign policy, and she was never caught up in the anti-Communist hysteria of Dulles, Joe McCarthy, and other right-wing fanatics.
The two dejected spies returned home in September 1951. That experience in France was considered good training for the future exploits of the female James Bond.
(Jackie's father, Jack Bouvier)
Jackie's second assignment was a successful CIA coup d'etat in Cuba!!
Even though that coup d'etat failed, Dulles must have been very pleased with the performance of his first female spy because she was recommended for more advanced training.
From October 1951 to January 1952, nothing is known of the whereabouts of Jackie O. Most likely she was undergoing intensive covert operations training for her next all-important assignment:
There is no record of any of Jackie's activities from October 1951 to January 1952. She and Lee traveled in Europe during the summer, a trip that was a graduation present for Lee, who had just finished Miss Porter's and was about to go to Sarah Lawrence. The Bouvier sisters created a delightful scrapbook of their trip, which they later published in the 1970s under the title One Special Summer. They returned from Europe on September 15, and Jackie's job as the Inquiring Photographer for the Washington Times-Herald started in January 1952, but there is no record in any of the multitudes of biographies that have been written about Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis that cover her activities in the late fall and early winter of 1951. (Mulvaney, Diana & Jackie, Maidens, Mothers, Myths, pp. 73-74).
After she completed her CIA training, Jackie O was now sent to Cuba to participate in a CIA coup d'etat against the lawfully elected government of Cuba... Assisted by Jackie O and the CIA, Fulgencio Batista seized power in March 1952. That was the end of the golden era for Cuba.
Jackie O spoke Spanish fluently and she had previous experience during the attempted coup d'etat in France.
Jackie was also intimately involved in the Revolution that brought "Communist" Fidel Castro to power in 1959.
The dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista led directly to the dictatorship of Fidel Castro. From 1952 onward, the country was ruined by the CIA as their Mafia gained a virtual stranglehold on the economy. What eventually led to the Cuban Missile Crisis was the close ties between CIA Castro and MI6 Nikita Khrushchev.
After ruining Cuba with a military dictatorship, Jackie's next assignment was to marry a young senator from Massachusetts named John Fitzgerald Kennedy.
 By following the career of the female James Bond, it can be proven conclusively that she was completely OWNED by the Agency. Once you successfully perform a "hit" or execution, you belong to them completely for the rest of your life. Nothing can get you out of the CIA snake pit except divine intervention. That is why you won't find very many ex-spies writing their autobiographies.
In early 1952, Jackie O got a job as a "reporter" and photographer with the Washington Times-Herald. Jackie's owl eyes, with her extraordinary peripheral vision, made her an excellent photographer.
That job was not too distasteful to her as it just entailed photographing and asking people silly questions. Soon after taking the Inquiring Photographer job, Allen Dulles dropped a bombshell. She was told to use her job to meet and marry a young senator from Massachusetts named John Fitzgerald Kennedy....Jack was just as reluctant to marry Jackie, but his father threatened to disinherit him if he did not comply.
No two different people could be found in any country. Jackie's passion was horseback riding but Jack was allergic to horses! But he "rode" anything in a skirt!
At first, Jackie O abhorred the idea of marrying Jack, but orders are orders, especially as they came from her boss Alan Dulles.
Since his father forced him to divorce his first wife, Durie Malcolm, Jack was not interested in ever marrying again. Jack's father, the infamous Joe Kennedy, held all the purse strings of the family, and he threatened to ruin Jack financially if he did not comply. Jackie was actually planning to marry a young stockbroker named John Husted...
Janet was just following orders from her husband and Allan Dulles. Jackie might have been consoled by Dulles, who reminded her that Jack was very sickly, and might die at any time. Like Diana Spencer before she married Prince Charles, Jackie O believed that Jack would change after the marriage.
Jackie's fourth assignment was a CIA coup d'etat in the United States!! Immediately after Lyndon Johnson was nominated for Vice President, Dulles visited him in Texas and appraised him of his role in the upcoming coup d'etat. He reminded him of the successful coup d'etat in Cuba and the fact that the President's wife was CIA all the way.
Sinister general Edward Lansdale was in charge of the meticulous planning for the coup d'etat.General Edward Lansdale reassured Curtis "Mad Bomber" LeMay that he would get his first strike on the Soviet Union just as soon as Kennedy was assassinated.
When Allen Dulles told Jackie O about her role in the upcoming coup d'etat, she was not too thrilled. Suppose something went wrong or the plot backfired. When Dulles reassured her that the Pentagon, the FBI, and the local police in Dallas would cooperate fully, she finally consented.
Dulles also reassured her that the CIA and the FBI would do their utmost to eliminate anybody who questioned her role in the assassination.
Ameringer, Charles. The Cuban Democratic Experience: The Auténtico Years, 1944-1952. University of Florida Press, Gainsville, Florida, 2000.
Bradford, Sarah. America's (Killer) Queen: The Life of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Penguin Books, New York, 2000.Curry, Cecil B. Edward Lansdale: The Unquiet American. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MASS, 1988.
Davis, John H. Jacqueline Bovier: An Intimate Portrait. John Wily & Sons, New York, 1996.
Heymann, David C. Bobby and Jackie: A Love Story. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2009.
Kuhn, William. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography In Books. Doubleday, New York, 2010.
Mulvaney, Jay. Diana & Jackie: Maidens, Mothers, Myths. St. Martin's Press, New York, 2002.
Maier, Thomas, The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings. Basic Books, New York, 2003.
Talbot, David. The Devil's Chessboard; Allen Dulles, the CIA, And The Rise of America's Secret Government. HarperCollins, New York, 2015.
Baker, Family of Secrets- The Bush Dynasty and America's Invisible Government
10 Things You May Not Know About Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
By Evan Andrews
July 28, 2014
Remembered for her impeccable fashion sense, cosmopolitan lifestyle and repeated brushes with tragedy, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis captivated the American public both during and after her time in the White House. Check out 10 surprising facts about the life and work of one of America’s most iconic first ladies.
She worked as a reporter and photographer.
After attending Vassar University, the Sorbonne and George Washington University, Onassis got her first job working as a reporter for the Washington Times-Herald in 1952. As the paper’s “Inquiring Photographer,” the future first lady roamed the streets of the nation’s capital asking strangers their opinions on everything from personal finance (“Do you approve of joint bank accounts?”) to politics and relationships (“Do you think a wife should let her husband think he’s smarter than she is?”). Among the many people she interviewed was Richard Nixon, the man John F. Kennedy would later defeat in the 1960 presidential election.
She was briefly engaged to another man before marrying John F. Kennedy.
Before ever going on her first date with Kennedy, Onassis very nearly married another man. In January 1952, the society pages of the Washington Times-Herald announced her engagement to a Yale grad, World War II vet and Wall Street banker named John Husted. The 22-year-old Onassis soon began having doubts about the match, and supposedly expressed reservations about becoming a housewife. In March 1952, she abruptly called off the wedding. Only a few months later, she began dating Kennedy—then a U.S. congressman—after meeting him at a dinner party. The two were married in September 1953.
She was both admired and criticized for her fashionable clothing.
Onassis was one of the defining fashion trendsetters of the 1960s. American women eagerly sought out the famous “Jackie look,” and department stores scrambled to produce affordable imitations of her sleek, classy dresses. Nevertheless, her chic sensibility was often a point of contention. Her obsession with pricy French couture was criticized during the 1960 presidential campaign, and after she became first lady, the Kennedy camp worried her taste for foreign clothing could make the family seem out of touch. To solve the problem, her father-in-law, Joseph Kennedy, helped pair her with American-based designer Oleg Cassini. Cassini went on to design more than 300 of Onassis’ most iconic outfits, and later dubbed himself the First Lady’s “Secretary of Style.”
She launched a massive renovation of the White House.
Shortly after Kennedy won the 1960 presidential election, Onassis turned her famous eye for style toward overhauling the shabby décor of the White House. After burning through her $50,000 budget in a matter of days, she created the Fine Arts Committee for the White House, courted private donors and went to work acquiring pieces of historically significant furniture from museums and collectors. She soon transformed the presidential mansion into a more elegant space adorned with antiques and artifacts once owned by the likes of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. In February 1962, she gave a famous televised tour of the renovated White House to Charles Collingwood of CBS-TV. The performance won her a special Emmy Award, and helped cement her celebrity status.
She opened a school in the White House.
Despite her own background as a reporter, Onassis strived to shield her two children from the media during her time in the White House. When press scrutiny and security concerns made it difficult for her young daughter Caroline to travel into the city, Onassis turned the White House’s third floor solarium into a nursery school and invited other kids—some of them children of Kennedy administration staff—to attend. The school later grew into a fully operational kindergarten complete with around ten students, professional teachers and even a small collection of rabbits, guinea pigs and other animals.
She spoke multiple languages.
Onassis was a lifelong student of foreign cultures, and became fluent in French, Spanish and Italian during her school days and European travels. Her facility with languages often proved a valuable asset to her husband’s political career. She translated French books on Southeast Asia for Kennedy when he was still in the senate, and later wowed campaign audiences by speaking French to voters in Louisiana and Spanish in Texas. Following a 1961 visit to France, where Onassis won over the public with her ability to speak the local tongue, her husband jokingly introduced himself as “the man who accompanied Jackie Kennedy to Paris.” President Lyndon Johnson—no doubt conscious of her fluency in Spanish—later considered making her the U.S. ambassador to Mexico.
She refused to change her bloodstained pink dress on the day of the JFK assassination.
On November 22, 1963, Onassis was sitting alongside her husband when he was killed by an assassin’s bullet while traveling in an open car through Dallas. Her iconic pink wool suit was spattered with blood, but the stunned first lady continued wearing the garment even during Lyndon Johnson’s swearing in as the new president. Lady Bird Johnson asked if she wanted a fresh outfit, but Onassis supposedly declined, saying, “Oh no, I want them to see what they’ve done to Jack.” The bloodstained suit is now held in the National Archives, but its matching pillbox hat was lost on the day of the assassination and has never been recovered.
She was the first to refer to the Kennedy administration as “Camelot.”
In an interview with Life Magazine a week after her husband’s death, Onassis described his love for “Camelot,” a musical based on the popular Arthurian novel “The Once and Future King.” She noted that the president enjoyed playing a recording of the musical’s title song, which featured the line, “Don’t let it be forgot, that once there was a spot, for one brief, shining moment, that was known as Camelot.” After quoting the lyrics, Onassis went on to say, “There will be great presidents again, but there will never be another Camelot.” The interview proved hugely popular, and “Camelot” soon became shorthand for the myth and glamour of the Kennedy administration.
She won a famous court case against a member of the paparazzi.
Following her 1968 marriage to Greek billionaire Aristotle Onassis, “Jackie O” became a favorite target of the paparazzi. Her most persistent admirer was Ron Galella, a notorious photographer who spent several years trailing her through the streets of New York to get candid snaps of her daily life. In 1973, Onassis sued the paparazzo for harassment and invasion of privacy. After a high profile trial, she won a court order forbidding him to step within 25 feet of her or 30 feet of her children. Galella paid little attention to the injunction, and even began carrying a measuring tape so he could ensure he wasn’t breaking the law. He only gave up his pursuit in the 1980s, after Onassis took him to court a second time.
She was a successful book editor.

Onassis had literary ambitions from an early age, and following Aristotle Onassis’s death in 1975, she moved to New York to pursue a career as a book editor. The former first lady started out as a consulting editor at Viking Press before moving to Doubleday, where she worked as a senior editor until her death in 1994. During her time in the publishing world she had a hand in several popular books including the Michael Jackson autobiography “Moonwalk,” Larry Gonick’s “The Cartoon History of the Universe” and translations of Nobel laureate Naguib Mahfouz’s “Cairo Trilogy.”
Death of a First Lady ; Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Dies of Cancer at 64
By Robert D. McFadden
May 20, 1994
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, the widow of President John F. Kennedy and of the Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis, died of a form of cancer of the lymphatic system yesterday at her apartment in New York City. She was 64 years old.
Mrs. Onassis, who had enjoyed robust good health nearly all her life, began being treated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in early January and had been undergoing chemotherapy and other treatments in recent months while continuing her work as a book editor and her social, family and other personal routines.
But the disease, which attacks the lymph nodes, an important component of the body's immune system, grew progressively worse. Mrs. Onassis entered the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center for the last time on Monday but returned to her Fifth Avenue apartment on Wednesday after her doctors said there was no more they could do.
In recent years Mrs. Onassis had lived quietly but not in seclusion, working at Doubleday; joining efforts to preserve historic New York buildings; spending time with her son, daughter and grandchildren; jogging in Central Park; getting away to her estates in New Jersey, at Hyannis, Mass., and on Martha's Vineyard, and going about town with Maurice Tempelsman, a financier who had become her closest companion.
She almost never granted interviews on her past -- the last was nearly 30 years ago -- and for decades she had not spoken publicly about Mr. Kennedy, his Presidency or their marriage.
Mrs. Onassis was surrounded by friends and family since she returned home from the hospital on Wednesday. After she died at 10:15 P.M. on Thursday, Senator Edward M. Kennedy's office issued a statement saying: "Jackie was part of our family and part of our hearts for 40 wonderful and unforgettable years, and she will never really leave us."
President Clinton said he and his wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton, spoke with Mrs. Onassis over the last several days and had been getting regular updates on her condition.
"She's been quite wonderful to my wife, to my daughter and to all of us," Mr. Clinton said.
Although she was one of the world's most famous women -- an object of fascination to generations of Americans and the subject of countless articles and books that re-explored the myths and realities of the Kennedy years, the terrible images of the President's 1963 assassination in Dallas, and her made-for-tabloids marriage to the wealthy Mr. Onassis -- she was a quintessentially private person, poised and glamorous, but shy and aloof.
They were qualities that spoke of her upbringing in the wealthy and fiercely independent Bouvier and Auchincloss families, of mansion life in East Hampton and Newport, commodious apartments in New York and Paris, of Miss Porter's finishing school and Vassar College and circles that valued a woman's skill with a verse-pen or a watercolor brush, at the reins of a chestnut mare or the center of a whirling charity cotillion.
She was only 23, working as an inquiring photographer for a Washington newspaper and taking in the capital night life of restaurants and parties, when she met John F. Kennedy, the young bachelor Congressman from Massachusetts, at a dinner party in 1952. She thought him quixotic after he told her he intended to become President.
But a year later, after Mr. Kennedy had won a seat in the United States Senate and was already being discussed as a Presidential possibility, they were married at Newport, R.I., in the social event of 1953, a union of powerful and wealthy Roman Catholic families whose scions were handsome, charming, trendy and smart. It was a whiff of American royalty.
And after Mr. Kennedy won the Presidency in 1960, there were a thousand days that seemed to raise up a nation mired in the cold war. There were babies in the White House for the first time in this century, and Jackie Kennedy, the vivacious young mother who showed little interest in the nuances of politics, busily transformed her new home into a place of elegance and culture.
She set up a White House fine arts commission, hired a White House curator and redecorated the mansion with early 19th Century furnishings, museum quality paintings and objets d'art, creating a sumptuous celebration of Americana that 56 million television viewers saw in 1961 as the First Lady, inviting America in, gave a guided tour broadcast by the three television networks.
A Transformation At the White House
"She really was the one who made over the White House into a living stage -- not a museum -- but a stage where American history and art were displayed," said Hugh Sidey, who was a White House correspondent for Time magazine at the time. He said she told him: "I want to restore the White House to its original glory."
There was more. She brought in a French chef and threw elegant and memorable parties. The guest lists went beyond prime ministers and potentates to Nobel laureates and distinguished artists, musicians and intellectuals.
Americans gradually became familiar with the whispering, intimate quality of her voice, with the head scarf and dark glasses at the taffrail of Honey Fitz on a summer evening on the Potomac, with the bouffant hair and formal smile for the Rose Garden and the barefoot romp with her children on a Cape Cod beach.
There was an avalanche of articles and television programs on her fashion choices, her hair styles, her tastes in art, music and literature, and on her travels with the President across the nation and to Europe. On a visit to New York, she spoke Spanish in East Harlem and French in a Haitian neighborhood.
Arriving in France, a stunning understated figure in her pillbox hat and wool coat as she rode with the President in an open car, she enthralled crowds that chanted "Vive Jacqui" on the road to Paris, and later, in an evening gown at a dinner at Versailles, she mesmerized the austere Charles de Gaulle.
When the state visit ended, a bemused President Kennedy said: "I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris -- and I have enjoyed it."
But the images of Mrs. Kennedy that burned most deeply were those in Dallas on Nov. 22, 1963: her lunge across the open limousine as the assassin's bullets struck, the Schiaparelli pink suit stained with her husband's blood, her gaunt stunned face in the blur of the speeding motorcade, and the anguish later at Parkland Memorial Hospital as the doctors gave way to the priest and a new era.
In the aftermath, some things were not so readily apparent: her refusal to change clothes on the flight back to Washington to let Americans see the blood; her refusal to take sleeping pills that might dull her capacity to arrange the funeral, whose planning she dominated. She stipulated the riderless horse in the procession and the eternal flame by the grave at Arlington.
And in public, what the world saw was a figure of admirable self-control, a black-veiled widow who walked beside the coffin to the tolling drums with her head up, who reminded 3-year-old John Jr. to salute at the service and who looked with solemn dignity upon the proceedings. She was 34 years old.
A week later, it was Mrs. Kennedy who bestowed the epitaph of Camelot upon a Kennedy Presidency, which, while deeply flawed in the minds of many political analysts and ordinary citizens, had for many Americans come to represent something magical and mythical. It happened in an interview Mrs. Kennedy herself requested with Theodore H. White, the reporter-author and Kennedy confidant who was then writing for Life magazine.
The conversation, he said in a 1978 book, "In Search of History," swung between history and her husband's death, and while none of J.F.K.'s political shortcomings were mentioned -- stories about his liaisons with women were known only to insiders at the time -- Mrs. Kennedy seemed determined to "rescue Jack from all these 'bitter people' who were going to write about him in history."
She told him that the title song of the musical "Camelot" had become "an obsession with me" lately. She said that at night before bedtime, her husband had often played it, or asked her to play it, on an old Victrola in their bedroom. Mr. White quoted her as saying:
"And the song he loved most came at the very end of this record, the last side of Camelot, sad Camelot. . . . 'Don't let it be forgot, that once there was a spot, for one brief shining moment that was known as Camelot.'
". . . There'll never be another Camelot again."
Mr. White recalled: "So the epitaph on the Kennedy Administration became Camelot -- a magic moment in American history, when gallant men danced with beautiful women, when great deeds were done, when artists, writers and poets met at the White House and the barbarians beyond the walls were held back."
But Mr. White, an admirer of Mr. Kennedy, added that her characterization was a misreading of history and that the Kennedy Camelot never existed, though it was a time when reason was brought to bear on public issues and the Kennedy people were "more often right than wrong and astonishingly incorruptible."
Five years later, with images of her as the grieving widow faded but with Americans still curious about her life and conduct, Mrs. Kennedy, who had moved to New York to be near family and friends and had gotten into legal disputes with photographers and writers portraying her activities, shattered her almost saintly image by announcing plans to marry Mr. Onassis.
It was a field day for the tabloids, a shock to members of her own family and a puzzlement to the public, given Camelot-Kennedy mystique. The prospective bridegroom was much shorter, and more than 28 years older, a canny businessman and not even American. Moreover, her brother-in-law, Robert Kennedy, had been assassinated earlier in the year, and the prospective marriage even posed a problem for the Vatican, which hinted that Mrs. Kennedy might become a public sinner.
Negotiating A Marriage
There were additional unseemly details -- a prenuptial agreement that covered money and property and children. But they were married in 1968, and for a time the world saw a new, more outgoing Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. But within a few years there were reported fights over money and other matters and accounts that each was being seen in the company of others.
While the couple was never divorced, the marriage was widely regarded as over long before Mr. Onassis died in 1975, leaving her a widow for the second time.
Jacqueline Bouvier was born on July 28, 1929, in East Hampton, L.I., to John Vernou Bouvier 3d and Janet Lee Bouvier. A sister, Caroline, known as Lee, was born four years later. From the beginning, the girls knew the trappings and appearances of considerable wealth. Their Long Island estate was called Lasata, an Indian word meaning place of peace. There was also a spacious family apartment at 765 Park Avenue, near 72d Street, in Manhattan.
Although the family lived well during the Depression, Mr. Bouvier's fortunes in the stock market rose and fell after huge losses in the crash of 1929. The marriage also foundered. In 1936, Mr. and Mrs. Bouvier separated, and their divorce became final in 1940.
In June 1942, Mrs. Bouvier married Hugh D. Auchincloss, who, like Mr. Bouvier, was a stockbroker. Mr. Auchincloss had been substantially better able to weather the Great Depression; his mother and benefactor was the former Emma Brewster Jennings, daughter of Oliver Jennings, a founder of Standard Oil with John D. Rockefeller.
From her earliest days, Jacqueline Bouvier attracted attention, as much for her intelligence as for her beauty. John H. Davis, a cousin who wrote "The Bouviers," a family history, in 1993, described her as a young woman who outwardly seemed to conform to social norms. But he wrote that she possessed a "fiercely independent inner life which she shared with few people and would one day be partly responsible for her enormous success."
Mr. Davis said Jacqueline "displayed an originality, a perspicacity," that set her apart, that she wrote credible verse, painted and became "an exceptionally gifted equestrienne." She also "possessed a mysterious authority, even as a teen-ager, that would compel people to do her bidding," he said.
Jacqueline seemed shy with individuals but would flower in large groups, dazzling people. "It was this watertight, interior suffisance, coupled with a need for attention, and corresponding love of being at center stage, which puzzled her relatives so and which in time would alternately charm and perplex the world," Mr. Davis wrote.
Her natural gifts could not save her from the effects of her parents' divorce, and after it occurred, Mr. Davis said, her relatives noticed her "tendency to withdraw frequently into a private world of her own."
John Vernou Bouvier Jr., her grandfather, wrote a history of the Bouvier family called "Our Forebears." The history indicates that the Bouviers were descended from French nobility. Stephen Birmingham, who wrote the biography "Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis" (Grosset & Dunlap), called the grandfather's book "a work of massive self-deception." Mr. Davis called it "a wishful history." From the documentation at hand, the Bouviers, who originated in southern France, had apparently been drapers, tailors, glovers, farmers and even domestic servants. The very name Bouvier means cowherd.
The family's original immigrant, Michel Bouvier, left a troubled France in 1815 after serving in Napoleon's defeated army and settled in Philadelphia. A man of considerable industry, he started as a handyman and later became a furniture manufacturer and, finally, a land speculator.
After the divorce, Jacqueline remained in touch with her father, but later she also spent a great deal of time with the Auchinclosses, who had a large estate in Virginia called Merrywood and another in Newport, R.I., called Hammersmith Farm. When she was 15, Jacqueline picked Miss Porter's School in Farmington, Conn., an institution that in addition to its academic offerings emphasized good manners and the art of conversation. Its students simply called it Farmington.
She became popular with classmates as well as with young men who visited Farmington from Hotchkiss, Choate, St. Paul's and other elite preparatory schools in the Northeast. Her teachers regarded her as an outstanding girl, but she once fretted to a friend, "I'm sure no one will ever marry me, and I'll end up being a housemother at Farmington." When she graduated, her yearbook said her ambition in life was "not to be a housewife."
Just as Jacqueline picked Miss Porter's, she also picked Vassar College, which she entered in 1947, not long after she was named "Debutante of the Year" by Igor Cassini, who wrote for the Hearst newspapers under the byline Cholly Knickerbocker. He described her as a "regal brunette who has classic features and the daintiness of Dresden porcelain." He noted that the popular Miss Bouvier had "poise, is soft-spoken and intelligent, everything the leading debutante should be."
Romance With Paris Starts in College
She did well at Vassar, especially in courses on the history of religion and Shakespeare, and made the dean's list. The late Charlotte Curtis, who became society editor of The New York Times and who was a student at Vassar with Miss Bouvier, once wrote that Miss Bouvier was not particularly thrilled with being in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., and referred to her college as "that damned Vassar," even though the invitations continued to flow in from young men at Harvard, Yale, Princeton and other leading universities. In 1949, for her junior year, she decided to apply to a program at Smith College for a year studying in France.
She loved Paris, and when the year was up she decided not to return to Vassar to finish her bachelor's degree but to transfer to George Washington University in Washington. If this new institution lacked some of the elan and elegance of Vassar, its saving grace in her eyes was its location, in the capital. She received a bachelor's degree from George Washington University in 1951.
While she was finishing the work for her degree, she won Vogue magazine's Prix de Paris contest, with an essay on "People I Wish I Had Known," beating out 1,279 other contestants. Her subjects were Oscar Wilde, Charles Baudelaire and Sergei Diaghilev. Her victory entitled her to spend some time in Paris, writing about fashion for Vogue, but she was persuaded not to accept the prize.
C. David Heymann, author of "A Woman Named Jackie" (Lyle Stuart, 1989) said Hugh Auchincloss had feared that if Jacqueline had returned to Paris and stayed there for any length of time, she might not have ever returned to the United States. Her mother came to agree with him. They may have been right; Mrs. Onassis would later recall her stay in Paris as a young woman as "the high point in my life, my happiest and most carefree year."
In Washington, she met and was briefly engaged to John Husted, a stockbroker. Through her stepfather's contacts, she was able to get a job as a photographer at The Washington Times-Herald, earning $42.50 a week. At the paper, she was an inquiring photographer assigned to do a light feature in which people were asked about a topic of the day; their comments appeared with their photos. Among the questions she asked were: "Are men braver than women in the dental chair?" and, "Do you think a wife should let her husband think he's smarter than she is?"
She continued her work for The Washington Times-Herald and she enjoyed Washington's restaurants and parties. It was at one such party, given in May 1952 by Charles Bartlett, Washington correspondent for The Chattanooga Times, that she met Mr. Kennedy, who would soon capture the Senate seat held by Henry Cabot Lodge.
Some time afterward, they began seeing each other, and the courtship gathered momentum. In 1953, while she was in London on assignment, Mr. Kennedy called her and proposed. Their engagement was not immediately made public by the Kennedys who feared that it might have headed off a flattering article due to appear in the Saturday Evening Post entitled, "Jack Kennedy -- Senate's Gay Young Bachelor." The article appeared in the June 13 issue and the engagement was announced on June 25. They were married Sept. 12, 1953, at Hammersmith Farm in Newport.
John Bouvier, whose feelings about Mr. Auchincloss had been restrained, did not show up at the wedding, and the bride was given away by Mr. Auchincloss. The couple honeymooned in a villa overlooking Acapulco Bay in Mexico. She later wrote a long letter to her father, forgiving him, but he became withdrawn in the years that followed. He died in 1957.
In the late 1950's, Mrs. Kennedy confided to friends that she tired of listening to "all these boring politicians," Mr. Heymann wrote, but she did her duty as the wife of a Senator. There were trials in her personal life. In 1955 she suffered a miscarriage, and in 1956 she had a stillborn child by Caesarean section. Mr. Kennedy, who had only narrowly missed winning the Democratic Vice Presidential nomination in 1956, began to worry that they might not be able to have children. They moved into a rented Georgetown home after Mr. Kennedy sold his Virginia home to his brother, Robert. But in 1957 Caroline Bouvier Kennedy was born. Three years later she gave birth to John F. Kennedy Jr. A third child, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, lived only 39 hours and died less than four months before President Kennedy's assassination in 1963.
The Royal Aura Of the Kennedys
After Mr. Kennedy was elected President in 1960, the mystique and aura around Mrs. Kennedy began to grow rapidly, especially after she and her husband made the state visit to France in 1961.
Her elegance and fluency in French captured their hearts, and at a glittering dinner at Versailles she seemed to quite mesmerize President de Gaulle, a man not easy to mesmerize, as well as several hundred exuberant French people named Bouvier, all of them apparently claiming some sort of cousinhood. At a luncheon at the Elysee Palace, Theordore C. Sorensen wrote in "Kennedy" that President de Gaulle had turned to Mr. Kennedy and said, "Your wife knows more French history than any French woman."
Returning home by way of London, where she received more approbation, Mrs. Kennedy soon began to make her plans to redecorate the White House, a building that she found lacking in grace. She asked the advice of Henry Francis du Pont, curator of the Winterthur Museum in Wilmington, Del., and set about collecting authentic pieces from the early 1800's. She found some objects in the White House basement; others were donated by private citizens who, like Mrs. Kennedy, were interested in the project.
Some people said she went too far when she found some antique Zuber wallpaper on a wall in nearby Maryland, had it removed and rehung in the White House at a cost of $12,500, even though the original French printing blocks were still in existence and she could have had the same design on new paper for much less.
The social skills she acquired at East Hampton and Farmington were much in evidence. Her parties were nothing short of spectacular. When the president of Pakistan visited Washington, he heard an orchestra, took a boat ride, and had poulet chasseur, accompanied by couronne de riz Clamart and, for dessert, some framboises a la creme Chantilly at a table graced by silverware, glassware and china from Tiffany and Bonwit Teller.
Operatic and popular voices, the cello of Pablo Casals, string trios and quartets and whole orchestras filled the rooms with glorious sound.
"I think she cast a particular spell over the White House that has not been equaled," said Benjamin C. Bradlee, former executive editor of The Washington Post, who was a friend of the Kennedys. "She was young. My God, she was young. She had great taste, a sense of culture, an understanding of art. She brought people like Andre Malraux to the White House who never would have gone there. As personalities, they really transformed the city."
Letitia Baldridge, who was Mrs. Kennedy's chief of staff and social secretary in the White House, remembered her sense of humor. "She had such a wit. She would have been terrible if she hadn't been so funny. She imitated people, heads of state, after everyone had left a White House dinner. Their accents, the way they talked. She was a cutup. Behind the closed doors, she'd dance a jig."
Before she left the White House, she placed a plaque in the Lincoln bedroom that said, "In this room lived John Fitzgerald Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, during the 2 years, 10 months and 2 days he was President of the United States -- Jan. 10, 1961 - Nov. 22, 1963." Mrs. Richard M. Nixon had the plaque removed after she and her husband moved in in 1969.
To some, Jacqueline Kennedy seemed to fall from grace as her year of mourning ended. She was photographed wearing a miniskirt; she was escorted to lunch and dinner and various social gatherings by prominent bachelors, including Frank Sinatra, Marlon Brando and Mike Nichols; she toured the Seville Fair on horseback in 1966 and, in a crimson jacket and a rakish broad-brimmed black hat, tossed down a glass of sherry. "I know," she said, "that to visit Sevilla and not ride horseback at the fair is equal to not coming at all." To some Americans she was no longer just the grieving widow of their martyred President; she was young, attractive and she clearly wanted to live her life with a certain brio.
But Mrs. Kennedy found she also needed more privacy. The more private she became the more curious the public seemed about her conduct. New Yorkers might be considered the most private of all Americans; urban apartment-dwelling grants anonymity to those who seek it. And so she moved to New York in 1964 to an apartment at 1040 Fifth Avenue. It was near the homes of family and friends and also not far from the Convent of the Sacred Heart at 91st Street and Fifth Avenue, where Caroline was to attend school.
New York was not all she had hoped it would be. For one thing, the photographer Ron Galella seemed to be everywhere she went, taking thousands of photographs of her. The preparation and publication of "The Death of a President," William Manchester's detailed account of the assassination of President Kennedy, turned into an unexpected battle for Mrs. Kennedy that may have cost her some popularity.
Mr. Manchester, whose work was admired by President Kennedy, asked for and received permission from the Kennedy family to do an authorized, definitive work on the assassination. His publisher, Harper & Row, agreed to turn over most of their profits to the Kennedy Library. Mrs. Kennedy, in a rare departure from her usual practice, agreed to be interviewed. Although Mr. Manchester did not stand to profit from the book itself, he did arrange to have it serialized in Look Magazine, starting in the summer of 1966, for which he would be paid $665,000.
Long Fight For Privacy
Mrs. Kennedy became angry. From her perspective, Mr. Manchester was commercially exploiting her husband's assassination. At one point, she tried to get an injunction in New York State Supreme Court to stop the publication of the book, either by Look or by Harper & Row. The case was settled in 1967, with Mr. Manchester agreeing to pay a large share of his earnings to the Kennedy Library.
Mrs. Onassis never created an oral history, associates said, and her refusal to give interviews has left little for the record that she would have approved. Tapes of two interviews with her -- Mr. White's shortly after the assassination in Dallas and Mr. Manchester's for his book "Death of a President" -- are kept under seal at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library in Boston.
Mr. Manchester's interview, 313 minutes on tape, was sealed for 100 years and is scheduled to be opened in 2067. The interview by Mr. White is to be unsealed a year after Mrs. Onassis's death. William Johnson, chief archivist at the library, said he believes the interviews contain material that the authors did not use in their books and might prove useful to historians.
Her silence about her past, especially about the Kennedy years and her marriage to the President, was always something of a mystery. Her family never spoke of it; out of loyalty or trepidation over her wrath, her closest friends shed no light on it and there was nothing authoritative to be learned beyond her inner circle.
The next year, Mr. Onassis and Mrs. Kennedy announced that they would be married. It had been five years since the President's death. She told a friend, "You don't know how lonely I've been." The ceremony was held on Oct. 20, 1968. She then became Mistress of Skorpios, the Aegean island that Mr. Onassis owned, and held sway over a palace with more than 70 servants on call. There were four other locations where he had homes. Mr. Davis observed that immediately after her marriage, Mrs. Onassis became more cheerful and outgoing but it was not to last. Within a few years, there were reports that Mr. and Mrs. Onassis were arguing. He was again seen in Paris, dining at Maxim's with the soprano Maria Callas. Mrs. Onassis was seen in New York in the company of other escorts.
Mr. Onassis issued a public statement that did little to dampen the rumor-mongering. "Jackie is a little bird that needs its freedom as well as its security and she gets them both from me," he said. "She can do exactly as she pleases -- visit international fashion shows and travel and go out with friends to the theater or anyplace. And I, of course, will do exactly as I please. I never question her and she never questions me."
The marriage continued to founder. Mr. Onassis persuaded the Greek Parliament to pass legislation to prevent her from getting the 25 percent portion of his estate that Greek law reserved for widows. When he died in 1975, his daughter Christina was at his side; Mrs. Onassis was in New York. There was a lawsuit and when it was settled, she received $20 million -- far less than the $125 million or more that she might have received.
Mrs. Onassis' began her career in publishing in 1975, when her friend Thomas Guinzburg, then the president of Viking Press, offered her a job as a consulting editor. But she resigned two years later after Mr. Guinzburg published -- without telling her, she said later -- a thriller by Jeffrey Archer called "Shall We Tell the President," which imagined that her brother-in-law, Senator Edward M. Kennedy, was President of the United States and described an assassination plot against him.
In 1978, Mrs. Onassis then took a new job as an associate editor at Doubleday under another old friend, John Sargent, and was installed at first in a small office with no windows. It helped, she said, that Nancy Tuckerman, who had been her social secretary at the White House, already had a job there; the two worked closely for the next 15 years.
At Doubleday, where she was eventually promoted to senior editor, Mrs. Onassis was known as a gracious and unassuming colleague who had to pitch her stories at editorial meetings, just as everyone else did. She avoided the industry's active social scene, probably because she had so little need to expand her network of contacts. She often ate lunch at her desk, for instance, avoiding the publishing lunchtime crowd at restaurants like the Four Seasons and 44. She worked three days a week -- Doubleday never revealed what days they were, for fear the information would attract celebrity-watchers -- and took long vacations in Martha's Vineyard every summer.
But she was very productive, editing 10 to 12 books a year on performing arts and other subjects. Books she published included Bill Moyers's "Healing and the Mind"; Michael Jackson's "Moonwalk"; and Edvard Radzinsky's "The Last Tsar: The Life and Death of Nicholas II." Her list also testified to her eclectic tastes and to her first-rate contacts. She published a number of children's books by the singer Carly Simon, a friend and Martha's Vineyard neighbor. Her love of Egypt inspired her, among other things, to bring the Cairo Trilogy, "Palace Walk," "Palace of Desire" and "Sugar Street" by Naguib Mahfouz, the Nobel Prize winner from Egypt, to Doubleday, where they were published in translation.
Admiration From Her Writers
In an industry where editors often have little time for their authors, Mrs. Onassis's spoke admiringly of her curiosity, her interest in their work and her great attention to detail. "Working with her was extraordinary," said Jonathan Cott, a contributing editor at Rolling Stone who has published several books on Egypt with Mrs. Onassis, the most recent being "Isis and Osiris: Rediscovering the Goddess Myth."
It seemed daunting to work with an editor who was also a public figure, but Mr. Cott said he was soon put at his ease. In editing sessions at Mrs. Onassis's home and office, he said, she would make notations on every page of his manuscript, drawing from her own knowledge of Egypt and her extensive collection of Egyptian literature and history books. "She had an incredible sense of literary style and structure," he said. "She was intelligent and passionate about the material; she was an ideal reader and an ideal editor."
John Russell, a former art critic for The New York Times and a longtime friend of Mrs. Onassis, remembered her as a shrewd judge of people, but one who was always mindful of their feelings and was careful not to hurt them if her judgments were negative.
"She had an absolutely unfailing antenna for the fake and the fraud in people," he said. "She never showed it when meeting people, but afterwards she had quite clearly sized people up. She never in public let people know she did not like them. People always went away thinking, 'She quite liked me, yes, she was impressed by me.' It was a very endearing quality."
Mrs. Onassis gave a rare interview to Publishers Weekly, the industry trade magazine, and it was on the subject of publishing. She agreed to the interview, Mrs. Onassis told the reporter, only on the condition that he use no tape recorder, take no photographs and ask no questions about her personal life. In the interview, in typically self-deprecating style, she said she had joined the profession because of a simple love of books. "One of the things I like about publishing is that you don't promote the editor -- you promote the book and the author," she said.
In the years following Mr. Onassis's death, she built a 19-room house on 375 acres of ocean-front land on Martha's Vineyard. She spent considerable time there, as well as in Bernardsville, N.J., where she rented a place and rode horses.
Mrs. Onassis did not marry again. In the last few years, Mr. Tempelsman, a Belgian born industrialist and diamond merchant, had been her frequent companion. The couple, who met about seven years ago, summered together on Martha's Vineyard and visited her horse farm. She told a friend that she admired his "strength and his success."

Mrs. Onassis is survived by her daughter, Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg; a son, John F. Kennedy Jr.; her sister, Lee Radziwill Ross, and three grandchildren, Rose Kennedy, Tatiana Celia Kennedy and John Bouvier Kennedy Schlossberg.